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Liquidambar styraciflua - Liriodendron tulipifera / Onoclea sensibilis Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Sweetgum - Tuliptree / Sensitive Fern Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Sweetgum - Tuliptree Brownwater Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007329
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This floodplain forest is found along brownwater rivers in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and adjacent areas of the Piedmont. In addition to Liquidambar styraciflua and Liriodendron tulipifera, the canopy may contain Nyssa biflora (which is a characteristic species of this type in the Coastal Plain) and Acer rubrum. Some stands may contain Betula nigra. The subcanopy is well-developed and contains canopy species along with Carpinus caroliniana, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Persea palustris, Acer barbatum, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Frangula caroliniana, Quercus phellos, Quercus nigra, and Viburnum nudum var. nudum. Some examples may contain Pinus taeda. Shrubs and vines may include Arundinaria gigantea, Decumaria barbara, Itea virginica, Leucothoe axillaris, Smilax laurifolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Campsis radicans, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis rotundifolia. Herbs may include Boehmeria cylindrica, Mitchella repens, Carex spp., Polystichum acrostichoides, Onoclea sensibilis and Woodwardia areolata. In the Piedmont, stands of this association may consist of linear zones along small streams.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Originally described from wet floodplains of the Savannah River Site, inner Coastal Plain of South Carolina after Jones et al. (1981b) (Yellow poplar-swamp gum-dog hobble community; 10 stands sampled). This association concept needs to be reviewed and compared to similar vegetation of the Coastal Plain and adjacent ecoregions. This association is possible in the Piedmont portions of the Sumter National Forest, but is not documented from there.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Southeastern Sweetgum - Green Ash Flooded & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004606 Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua - Nyssa biflora Ruderal Floodplain Forest
CEGL007546 Pinus taeda - Liriodendron tulipifera / Lindera benzoin / Carex crinita Ruderal Wet Forest
CEGL007732 Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus laurifolia - (Pinus taeda) / Arundinaria gigantea / Carex abscondita Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Yellow poplar-swamp gum-dog hobble community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.323 Southern Piedmont Small Floodplain and Riparian Forest
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.248 Atlantic Coastal Plain Brownwater Stream Floodplain Forest
CES203.250 Atlantic Coastal Plain Small Brownwater River Floodplain Forest
CES203.559 East Gulf Coastal Plain Small Stream and River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (15Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Some examples of these forests develop following disturbance (including removal of more valuable timber species) and may persist. This is not an inherently rare forest type and is widely distributed in the southern Coastal Plain of the United States. Older or higher quality examples could be significant to conservation, particularly if they are interspersed with, and serve as buffer for, rarer types. It is poorly documented through Element Occurrences, and not much data are available on the specific condition of examples of this type. Grank changed from G3G5 to G4 2001-05-24.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: FLpotentially occurs, GA, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This forest is found in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and adjacent areas of the Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: In addition to Liquidambar styraciflua and Liriodendron tulipifera, the canopy may contain Nyssa biflora (which is a characteristic species of this type in the Coastal Plain (Jones et al. 1981b)) and Acer rubrum. An atypical example on the Ocmulgee River at the fall-line of Georgia (Ocmulgee National Monument) has a canopy codominated by Populus deltoides. The subcanopy is well-developed and contains canopy species along with Carpinus caroliniana, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Persea palustris, Acer barbatum, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Frangula caroliniana, Quercus phellos, Quercus nigra, and Viburnum nudum var. nudum. Some examples may contain Pinus taeda or Ulmus rubra. Shrubs and vines may include Arundinaria gigantea, Berchemia scandens, Crataegus viridis, Decumaria barbara, Ilex ambigua, Itea virginica, Leucothoe axillaris, Sabal minor, Smilax laurifolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Campsis radicans, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Vitis rotundifolia. Herbs may include Boehmeria cylindrica, Mitchella repens, Carex spp., Polystichum acrostichoides, Onoclea sensibilis, and Woodwardia areolata (Jones et al. 1981b).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is found on highly productive floodplains and upper stream drainages (Jones et al. 1981b). These are associated with brownwater rivers in the South Atlantic Coastal Plain and possibly adjacent ecoregions. In the Piedmont, stands of this association may consist of linear zones along small streams. Some examples are mature forests which developed on formerly cultivated lands.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard
Element Description Edition Date: 17Feb2009
Element Description Author(s): D.J. Allard and L. Kruse
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Jones, S. M., D. H. Van Lear, and S. K. Cox. 1981b. Major forest community types of the Savannah River Plant: A field guide. USDE Savannah River Plant, National Environmental Research Park Program. Report No. SRO-NERP-9. 79 pp. plus 24 illustrations.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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Data last updated: November 2016