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Pinus taeda - Chamaecyparis thyoides - Nyssa biflora / Lyonia lucida - Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - Atlantic White-cedar - Swamp Tupelo / Shining Fetterbush - Coastal Sweet-pepperbush Swamp Forest
Common Name: Atlantic Coastal Plain Tidewater Nonriverine Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007558
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This type includes nonriverine swamps of the Outer Coastal Plain (embayed or tidewater region) of North Carolina, occurring on very large flats with a high water table. Soils are generally organic, such as Typic Medisaprists and Terric Medisaprists. The canopy is dominated by variable mixtures of Pinus taeda, Pinus serotina, Chamaecyparis thyoides, Taxodium distichum, Taxodium ascendens, Nyssa biflora, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Liriodendron tulipifera. Many examples are dominated by Nyssa biflora, with Taxodium (of ambiguous species) and Pinus taeda as substantial minorities in the best examples. Acer rubrum is common in logged examples. Chamaecyparis thyoides is less common, and Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus serotina are present in small numbers in only a few examples. The subcanopy is open to dense and consists of Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris, and Cyrilla racemiflora. The shrub layer is often well-developed, though not pocosin-like, and characteristically includes Lyonia lucida, Ilex glabra, Clethra alnifolia, Cyrilla racemiflora, Vaccinium formosum, and Vaccinium fuscatum. Smilax laurifolia is a liana climbing into the canopy. The herb layer is poorly developed, with Woodwardia areolata, Woodwardia virginica, Carex spp., and Sphagnum spp.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Evergreen Hardwood - Conifer Swamp
Group Coastal Plain Mixed Evergreen Swamp
Alliance Sweetbay - Swamp Tupelo - Laurel Oak Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Nonriverine Swamp Forest (Mixed Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Magnolia virginiana - (Chamaecyparis thyoides) / Lyonia lucida - Clethra alnifolia Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Nonriverine Swamp Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Nonriverine Swamp Forest (Mixed Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Streamhead Pocosin
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.304 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: These nonriverine swamps occur in the outer Coastal Plain (embayed or tidewater region) of North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Many examples are dominated by Nyssa biflora, with Taxodium (of ambiguous species) and Pinus taeda as substantial minorities in the best examples. Acer rubrum is common in logged examples. Chamaecyparis thyoides is less common, and Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus serotina are present in small numbers in only a few examples (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2004).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These are nonriverine swamps of the outer Coastal Plain (embayed or tidewater region) of North Carolina, occurring on very large flats with high water table. Soils are generally organic, such as Typic Medisaprists and Terric Medisaprists.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association may occur in a long-term shifting mosaic with white-cedar forests (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2004).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Feb2005
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley and J. Teague

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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