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Salix nigra Central Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Black Willow Central Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Central Black Willow Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL002103
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: The black willow forest type is found widely but sporadically across the central United States. Stands occur on the banks of small to large rivers where they are a component of point bar succession. It may also be present in the inflows of manmade lakes where similar sand bars may develop over time and where the seasonal draining patterns of the lake may mimic similar natural processes. Surface water is present for brief periods during the growing season, but the water table usually lies well below soil surface. The vegetation is a closed-canopy forest dominated by Salix nigra. Associates may include Populus deltoides, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Diospyros virginiana, Cornus drummondii, Ulmus americana, Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, and Acer saccharinum. Shrubs and herbaceous plants are absent to fairly dense. They include Ampelopsis arborea, Mikania scandens, Toxicodendron radicans, Polygonum spp., Erechtites hieraciifolia, Boehmeria cylindrica, and Phytolacca americana. In Kentucky, stands may contain Dichanthelium commutatum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This type needs a thorough rangewide assessment to standardize its concept. In Missouri, stands of this nature are included in Populus deltoides - Salix nigra - Acer saccharinum Floodplain Forest (CEGL002018).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Group Silver Maple - Green Ash - Sycamore Floodplain Forest
Alliance Silver Maple - Eastern Cottonwood Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002018 Populus deltoides - Salix nigra - Acer saccharinum Floodplain Forest
CEGL004626 Salix nigra - Platanus occidentalis Floodplain Forest
CEGL006629 Salix nigra - (Populus deltoides) Floodplain Forest
CEGL007092 Salix nigra Ozark Floodplain Forest
CEGL007410 Salix nigra - (Platanus occidentalis, Populus deltoides) Southern Floodplain Forest
CEGL008481 Salix nigra - (Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acacia farnesiana) Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Illinois Wet Floodplain Forest (S) Undetermined   White and Madany 1978
Indiana Forest - Floodplain Wet Undetermined   Homoya et al. 1988
Iowa Black Willow Floodplain Forest Equivalent Certain INAI
Ohio Maple-Cottonwood-Sycamore Floodplain Forest Undetermined   ONHD unpubl. data
Oklahoma Salix nigra woodland association Undetermined Not certain Hoagland 2000



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest
CES202.694 North-Central Interior Floodplain
CES202.705 South-Central Interior Large Floodplain
CES203.489 East Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.559 East Gulf Coastal Plain Small Stream and River Floodplain Forest
CES303.651 Edwards Plateau Floodplain Terrace
CES303.652 Edwards Plateau Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (15Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This association is currently broadly described to cover a large geographic range. It occurs sporadically on the banks of small to large rivers in the central United States. There is a need for further inventory and description of this community to determine its relationship to similar communities, but it is assumed to be under no severe threats and its wide distribution means that it is not a rare community type.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IA, ILpotentially occurs, INpotentially occurs, KY, OH, OK, WV
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: The black willow forest type is found widely, but sporadically across the central United States, ranging from Ohio west to Iowa, south to Oklahoma, and east to Kentucky and West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Temperate) Province
Province Code: 251 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Osage Plains Section
Section Code: 251E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flint Hills Section
Section Code: 251F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) Province
Province Code: 255 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cross Timbers and Prairie Section
Section Code: 255A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oak Woods and Prairies Section
Section Code: 255C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 255D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ouachita Mixed Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is a closed-canopy forest dominated by Salix nigra. Associates include Populus deltoides, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Diospyros virginiana, Cornus drummondii, Ulmus americana, Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, and Acer saccharinum. Shrubs and herbaceous plants are absent to fairly dense. They include Ampelopsis arborea, Mikania scandens, Toxicodendron radicans, Polygonum spp., Erechtites hieraciifolia, Boehmeria cylindrica, and Phytolacca americana.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 

Vegetation Structure Summary: This vegetation is a closed-canopy forest.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands occur on the banks of small to large rivers in the central United States where they are a component of point bar succession. Surface water is present for brief periods during the growing season, but the water table usually lies well below soil surface.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Flooding is typically brief during the growing season.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Great Plains Program, mod. D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 21Dec2015
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J. Teague, mod. M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baalman, R. J. 1965. Vegetation of the Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Jet, Oklahoma. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, Norman.

  • Blair, W. F. 1938. Ecological relationships of the mammals of the Bird Creek region, northeastern Oklahoma. The American Midland Naturalist 20:473-526.

  • Blair, W. F., and T. H. Hubbell. 1938. The biotic districts of Oklahoma. The American Midland Naturalist 20:425-454.

  • Hefley, H. M. 1937. Ecological studies on the Canadian River floodplain in Cleveland County, Oklahoma. Ecological Monographs 7:347-402.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • INAI [Iowa Natural Areas Inventory]. No date. Vegetation classification of Iowa. Iowa Natural Areas Inventory, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines.

  • Johnson, F. L. 1984. Vegetational changes in a black willow forest over a 23 year period. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 64:11-13.

  • Kelting, R. W., and W. T. Penfound. 1950. The vegetation of stock pond dams in central Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 44:69-75.

  • McCoy, D. A. 1958. Vascular plants of Pontotoc County, Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 59:371-396.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1953. Plant communities of Oklahoma lakes. Ecology 34:561-583.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1961. The composition of a black willow forest in south central Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 41:30-31.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1965. Vegetational changes in a black willow forest over a four-year period. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 45:39.

  • Petranka, J. W., and R. Holland. 1980. A quantitative analysis of bottomland communities in south-central Oklahoma. Southwestern Naturalist 25:207-214.

  • Salas, D. E., T. Folts-Zettner, R. W. Sanders, and J. Drake. 2010c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Chickasaw National Recreation Area. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/SOPN/NRTR--2010/286. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 176 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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