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Spiraea tomentosa - Rubus spp. / Phalaris arundinacea Ruderal Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Steeplebush - Blackberry species / Reed Canarygrass Ruderal Wet Shrubland
Common Name: Ruderal Steeplebush / Reed Canarygrass Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006571
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This wet meadow vegetation of the northeastern states occurs in a variety of settings, most frequently in low-lying areas of old fields or pastures, headwater basins, or beaver-impacted wetlands. The physiognomy is complex and variable, ranging from shrub thicket to herbaceous meadow with scattered shrubs. Shrub species usually include Spiraea tomentosa, Spiraea alba var. alba, Cornus amomum, Rubus allegheniensis, Rubus hispidus, Salix spp., and others. Hypericum densiflorum often occurs in the Central Appalachians. The invasive exotic shrubs Lonicera morrowii and Rosa multiflora may be locally abundant. Associated herbaceous species are also variable in composition, depending on land-use history. Commonly seen are Phalaris arundinacea, Solidago rugosa, Solidago gigantea, Solidago canadensis, Juncus effusus, Scirpus cyperinus, Scirpus expansus, Leersia oryzoides, Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex scoparia, Carex folliculata, Carex lurida, Carex lupulina, Carex vulpinoidea, Carex trichocarpa, Vernonia noveboracensis, Triadenum virginicum, Lycopus uniflorus, Impatiens capensis, Eupatorium maculatum, Polygonum sagittatum, Thelypteris palustris, Onoclea sensibilis, Eleocharis spp., and others. The invasive species Microstegium vimineum, Lythrum salicaria, and Phragmites australis can be abundant or form monocultures in these wetlands. Successional wet meadows in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey can include scattered patches of Liquidambar styraciflua and Morella pensylvanica, and more predominantly grassy patches of Andropogon virginicus, Panicum rigidulum, Panicum virgatum, and Spiraea tomentosa.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern-Southeastern North American Ruderal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern Ruderal Wet Meadow & Marsh
Alliance Ruderal Steeplebush - Blackberry Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006576 Cornus (amomum, sericea) - Viburnum dentatum - Rosa multiflora Ruderal Shrub Swamp



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Shallow emergent marsh Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Wet meadow Intersects   Fike 1999
West Virginia Spiraea tomentosa / Sphagnum spp. Shrub Swamp Equivalent Certain WVNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Spiraea tomentosa / Sphagnum palustre Shrub Peatland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.069 High Allegheny Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (15Jul2013)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, MEpotentially occurs, NJ, NY, PA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: Although this vegetation is widespread, its range has not been evaluated. It is known from the Central Appalachian ecoregion, the High Alleghany Plateau, Western Alleghany Plateau, North Atlantic Coast, and the Lower New England / Northern Piedmont ecoregions, and is likely in others.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The physiognomy is complex and variable, ranging from shrub thicket to herbaceous meadow with scattered shrubs. Within each wetland, species may be locally abundant and often have patchy distribution. Shrub species usually include Spiraea tomentosa, Spiraea alba var. alba, Cornus amomum, Rubus allegheniensis, Rubus hispidus, Salix spp., and others. Hypericum densiflorum often occurs in the Central Appalachians. The invasive exotic shrubs Lonicera morrowii and Rosa multiflora may be locally abundant. Associated herbaceous species are also variable in composition, depending on land-use history. Commonly seen are Phalaris arundinacea, Solidago rugosa, Solidago gigantea, Solidago canadensis, Juncus effusus, Scirpus cyperinus, Scirpus expansus, Leersia oryzoides, Calamagrostis canadensis, Carex scoparia, Carex folliculata, Carex lurida, Carex lupulina, Carex vulpinoidea, Carex trichocarpa, Vernonia noveboracensis, Triadenum virginicum, Lycopus uniflorus, Impatiens capensis, Eupatorium maculatum, Polygonum sagittatum, Thelypteris palustris, Onoclea sensibilis, Eleocharis spp., and others. Sphagnum spp. are often abundant along with lesser amounts of other nonvascular species. The invasive species Microstegium vimineum, Lythrum salicaria, and Phragmites australis can be abundant or form monocultures in these wetlands. Successional wet meadows in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey can include scattered patches of Liquidambar styraciflua and Morella pensylvanica, and more predominantly grassy patches of Andropogon virginicus, Panicum rigidulum, Panicum virgatum, and Spiraea tomentosa.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Lonicera morrowii GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rosa multiflora GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Rubus allegheniensis GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Spiraea alba var. alba GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Spiraea tomentosa GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Lythrum salicaria GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago canadensis GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago rugosa GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Thelypteris palustris GNA Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 
Leersia oryzoides GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Microstegium vimineum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Phalaris arundinacea GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Phragmites australis GNA Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This wet meadow vegetation of the northeastern states occurs in a variety of settings, most frequently in low-lying areas of old fields or pastures, headwater basins, or beaver-impacted wetlands. These wetlands typically flood early in the growing season and may be saturated to near the surface for some of the growing season, but they are generally dry for much of the year. The substrate is typically mineral soil with a layer of muck at the surface.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Central Appalachian Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 19Feb2009
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, S.C. Gawler and E.F. Largay

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • Decker, E. 1955. The Conneaut Marsh: Marsh and waterfowl investigations. M.S. thesis, Pennsylvania State University Graduate School, School of Forestry. 108 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014b. Vegetation inventory: Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/869, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Largay, E. F., and L. A. Sneddon. 2017. Vegetation mapping and classification of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2017/1529. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Metzler, K. J., J. P. Barrett, T. E. Nosal, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/130. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 128 pp.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • NatureServe and E. Russell. 2003. International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States. Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, VA. Data current as June 2003.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006d. Vegetation classification and mapping at Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/079. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006e. Vegetation classification and mapping at Johnstown Flood National Memorial. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/034. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 144 pp.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.


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