NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus michauxii / Carpinus caroliniana - Ilex opaca / Leucothoe racemosa Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Swamp Chestnut Oak / American Hornbeam - American Holly / Swamp Doghobble Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007737
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This forest community occurs on the edges of brownwater floodplains in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, in situations that are very rarely flooded by alluvial waters, but which receive regular seepage from adjacent upland slopes. The hydrology is constantly saturated, and soils are silty clay with organic matter present. This association has a closed canopy and moderate to sparse subcanopy, shrub, herbaceous, and vine/liana strata. The canopy is dominated by Quercus michauxii. Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua are typical in the canopy. The subcanopy is dominated by Carpinus caroliniana. Other species that may occur in the canopy or subcanopy include Nyssa sylvatica, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris, Quercus pagoda, Acer rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus nigra, Ulmus alata, Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya alba, Cornus foemina, Ilex decidua, Ilex opaca, Quercus phellos, Carya cordiformis, and others. Leucothoe racemosa is the dominant and characteristic shrub species; other shrubs present can include Ilex verticillata, Callicarpa americana, Viburnum dentatum, Rhododendron canescens, and others. The herbaceous layer is sparse and is weakly dominated by Chasmanthium sessiliflorum. Other species that are typical include Carex bromoides, Osmunda cinnamomea, Pluchea camphorata, Carex scoparia, and Mitchella repens. This forest type is documented in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, but is possible in adjacent regions; global distribution needs assessment.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association was described based on 1998 data from the Congaree Swamp National Monument. The exotic Lonicera japonica may be present. Few stands of this vegetation type have been studied, and rangewide information is limited. The most closely related vegetation in Virginia is treated as Quercus laurifolia - Quercus michauxii - Liquidambar styraciflua / Carpinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest (CEGL004678).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Coastal Plain Swamp Chestnut Oak Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004631 Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus laurifolia / Magnolia virginiana / Carex lonchocarpa Wet Forest
CEGL004678 Quercus laurifolia - Quercus michauxii - Liquidambar styraciflua / Carpinus caroliniana Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications


Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.248 Atlantic Coastal Plain Brownwater Stream Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (03Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This is an unusual forested association with saturated rather than temporarily flooded hydrology. The specialized habitat required for this community is scarce (TNC 1998b). Some stands are conserved on the Congaree Swamp National Monument, South Carolina. Few stands of this vegetation type have been studied, and rangewide information is limited. This community and its composition and structure are dependent on local groundwater flow due to the saturated hydrology. Examples that are not protected would be threatened by timber removal and changes to the hydrology which could disrupt groundwater volume and seasonality.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, NCpotentially occurs, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is found on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and may range from North Carolina to Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is dominated by Quercus michauxii. Pinus taeda and Liquidambar styraciflua are typical in the canopy. The subcanopy is dominated by Carpinus caroliniana. Other species that may occur in the canopy or subcanopy include Nyssa sylvatica, Magnolia virginiana, Persea palustris, Quercus pagoda, Acer rubrum, Quercus laurifolia, Quercus nigra, Ulmus alata, Liriodendron tulipifera, Carya alba, Cornus foemina, Ilex decidua, Ilex opaca, Quercus phellos, Carya cordiformis, and others. Leucothoe racemosa is the dominant and characteristic shrub species; other shrubs present can include Ilex verticillata, Callicarpa americana, Viburnum dentatum, Rhododendron canescens, and others. The herbaceous layer is sparse and is weakly dominated by Chasmanthium sessiliflorum. Other species that are typical include Carex bromoides, Osmunda cinnamomea, Pluchea camphorata, Carex scoparia, and Mitchella repens. The exotic Lonicera japonica may be present in some stands of this association (TNC 1998b).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus michauxii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Ilex opaca G2 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Leucothoe racemosa G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Chasmanthium sessiliflorum G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Lonicera japonica G2 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on the edges of brownwater floodplains in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, in situations that are very rarely flooded by alluvial waters, but which receive regular seepage from adjacent upland slopes. The hydrology is constantly saturated, and soils are silty clay with organic matter present. This association has a closed canopy and moderate to sparse subcanopy, shrub, herbaceous, and vine/liana strata.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. [1998]b. Classification of the vegetation of Congaree Swamp National Monument. Report to BRD-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. The Nature Conservancy, Southern Conservation Science, Chapel Hill, NC. 67 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016