NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus muehlenbergii / Packera plattensis - Parthenium auriculatum - Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
Translated Name: Chinquapin Oak / Prairie Groundsel - Glade Wild Quinine - Little Bluestem Woodland
Common Name: Ridge and Valley Dolomite Glade
Unique Identifier: CEGL006030
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community type is a dolomite woodland of the Ridge and Valley of Virginia. It is physiognomically variable, often containing patch-mosaics of semi-closed, forb-rich woodlands, shrub thickets, and small grassy openings. The average expression appears to be an open to very open woodland with a sparse layer of somewhat stunted trees 6-10 m tall and scattered emergent trees 10-15 m tall. Mean stratum cover for each tree stratum is 15% in the four plots analyzed here. However, because plots were often placed in the most open portions of these woodlands, mean cover in tree strata may be somewhat understated. Quercus muehlenbergii is the most constant and abundant tree. Liriodendron tulipifera and, more locally, Pinus strobus are its most frequent associates. Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Fraxinus americana, and Magnolia acuminata are occasional components of the 6- to 10-m tall tree layer. Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Cornus florida, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, and Ostrya virginiana comprise most of the shrub layer (mean stratum cover = 50%), along with sapling Pinus strobus and Quercus muehlenbergii. The herbaceous layer (mean stratum cover = 56%) contains a mixture of drought-tolerant graminoids, forbs, and low shrubs such as Berberis canadensis, Ceanothus americanus, Hypericum prolificum, Rhus aromatica var. aromatica, and Rosa carolina. Dominant or locally abundant herbs include Carex pensylvanica, Dichanthelium boscii, Helianthus divaricatus, Phlox latifolia, Parthenium auriculatum (= Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum), Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, and Packera plattensis (= Senecio plattensis). Thinly shaded, forb-dominated phases contain many distinctive herbaceous species, including Symphyotrichum laeve (= Aster laevis), Brickellia eupatorioides var. eupatorioides, Helianthus laevigatus, Solidago arguta var. harrisii, Taenidia integerrima, Thalictrum revolutum, and Zizia aptera. Small openings are characterized by the grasses Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula, and Sporobolus clandestinus. Light-demanding forbs such as Echinacea laevigata, Liatris aspera var. intermedia, Lithospermum canescens, and Lobelia spicata var. leptostachys may also be prominent in these openings, which resemble very small, prairie-like barrens.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Name changed to reflect new research and information on this community by Virginia Division of Natural Heritage (Fleming 1999). Excellent examples of this community type may be seen at The Nature Conservancy's Den Creek Woodland Preserve and State of Virginia's Pedlar Hill Natural Area Preserve, both in Montgomery County. First reported and described by Grossman et al. (1994), the type was originally included in the U.S. National Vegetation Classification under the name Quercus muehlenbergii / Senecio plattensis - Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum - Echinacea laevigata Woodland. As treated there and in Grossman et al. (1994), the type encompasses several "variants," including a scrub/lithophytic variant of steep, cliff-like slopes; an herbaceous, prairie-like variant; a submesic lower slope variant characterized by nutrient-demanding forbs; and a variant occurring on the Rome and Copper Ridge dolomites that lacks many of the characteristic magnesiophilic species occurring on the Elbrook Formation. Since 1994, a great deal has been learned about dry calcareous forests and woodlands in Virginia, and the community type is more narrowly circumscribed here. The Rome/Copper Ridge variant and the larger prairie-like herbaceous openings are fundamentally distinct and are now excluded from the type's ecological concept. The other two "variants" require additional study and may also warrant separate classifications. Moreover, the tentative attribution of this type to West Virginia and Maryland based on information in Bartgis (1993) is very doubtful (Fleming 1999).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Chinquapin Oak - Red-cedar Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Appalachian Limestone Chinquapin Oak Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus muehlenbergii - Juniperus virginiana / Packera plattensis - Parthenium auriculatum - Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muehlenbergii / Senecio plattensis - Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum - Echinacea laevigata Woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Grossman, D. H., K. Lemon Goodin, and C. L. Reuss, editors. 1994. Rare plant communities of the conterminous United States: An initial survey. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. 620 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus muhlenbergii - Juniperus virginiana / Packera plattensis - Parthenium auriculatum - Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus muhlenbergii / Parthenium auriculatum - Senecio plattensis Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 1999. Plant communities of limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous substrates in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-4. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 218 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Chinquapin oak-ragwort calcareous woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Montane Dry Calcareous Forest / Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.602 Central Appalachian Alkaline Glade and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (17Nov1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This community is known from the Ridge and Valley physiographic province in west-central Virginia. There are probably fewer than 20 occurrences rangewide. Currently there are 12 occurrences documented in Virginia, with a total of about 100 acres. It is restricted to dolomite bedrock. Historically there were more occurrences; many former occurrences have been destroyed or severely degraded.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from the Ridge and Valley physiographic province in west-central Virginia, particularly in the counties of Montgomery, Roanoke, Pulaski, and Giles.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community type is physiognomically variable, often containing patch-mosaics of semi-closed, forb-rich woodlands, shrub thickets, and small grassy openings. The average expression appears to be an open to very open woodland with a sparse layer of somewhat stunted trees 6-10 m tall and scattered emergent trees 10-15 m tall. Mean stratum cover for each tree stratum is 15% in the four plots analyzed here. However, because plots were often placed in the most open portions of these woodlands, mean cover in tree strata may be somewhat understated. Quercus muehlenbergii is the most constant and abundant tree. Liriodendron tulipifera and, more locally, Pinus strobus are its most frequent associates. Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana (eastern red cedar), Fraxinus americana, and Magnolia acuminata are occasional components of the 6- to 10-m tall tree layer. Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Cornus florida, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, and Ostrya virginiana comprise most of the shrub layer (mean stratum cover = 50%), along with sapling Pinus strobus and Quercus muehlenbergii. The herbaceous layer (mean stratum cover = 56%) contains a mixture of drought-tolerant graminoids, forbs, and low shrubs such as Berberis canadensis, Ceanothus americanus, Hypericum prolificum, Rhus aromatica var. aromatica, and Rosa carolina. Dominant or locally abundant herbs include Carex pensylvanica, Dichanthelium boscii, Helianthus divaricatus, Phlox latifolia, Parthenium auriculatum (= Parthenium integrifolium var. auriculatum), Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, and Packera plattensis (= Senecio plattensis). Thinly shaded, forb-dominated phases contain many distinctive herbaceous species, including Symphyotrichum laeve (= Aster laevis), Brickellia eupatorioides var. eupatorioides, Helianthus laevigatus, Solidago arguta var. harrisii, Taenidia integerrima, Thalictrum revolutum, and Zizia aptera. Small openings are characterized by the grasses Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula, and Sporobolus clandestinus. Light-demanding forbs such as Echinacea laevigata, Liatris aspera var. intermedia, Lithospermum canescens, and Lobelia spicata var. leptostachys may also be prominent in these openings, which resemble very small, prairie-like barrens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liriodendron tulipifera G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus muehlenbergii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Diospyros virginiana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ostrya virginiana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Prunus alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Berberis canadensis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ceanothus americanus G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhamnus lanceolata G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhus aromatica var. aromatica G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Viburnum rafinesquianum G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Clematis addisonii G2 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vitis aestivalis var. aestivalis G2 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cercis canadensis var. canadensis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Cornus florida G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Rosa carolina G2 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Hypericum prolificum G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Asclepias verticillata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Brickellia eupatorioides var. eupatorioides G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Chrysogonum virginianum var. virginianum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Delphinium exaltatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Desmodium ciliare G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Desmodium laevigatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Desmodium obtusum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Dodecatheon meadia G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Echinacea laevigata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Euphorbia spathulata G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Galium pilosum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Helianthus divaricatus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Helianthus laevigatus G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Houstonia longifolia G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lespedeza frutescens G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lespedeza virginica G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lithospermum canescens G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lobelia spicata var. leptostachys G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Matelea obliqua G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Packera plattensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Parthenium auriculatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Passiflora lutea G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Phlox latifolia G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Physalis heterophylla G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Physostegia virginiana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Rudbeckia fulgida G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ruellia humilis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Scutellaria parvula var. missouriensis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Silphium trifoliatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago nemoralis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Symphyotrichum laeve G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Symphyotrichum undulatum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Thalictrum revolutum G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Viola triloba var. triloba G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Pellaea atropurpurea G2 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Bouteloua curtipendula var. curtipendula G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium boscii G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Muhlenbergia capillaris var. capillaris G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium ssp. scoparium G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Sorghastrum nutans G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Sporobolus clandestinus G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Berberis canadensis
  (American Barberry)
G3  
Clematis addisonii
  (Addison's Leatherflower)
G1?  
Delphinium exaltatum
  (Tall Larkspur)
G3  
Echinacea laevigata
  (Smooth Purple Coneflower)
G2G3 LE: Listed endangered
Parthenium auriculatum
  (Glade Wild Quinine)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community type is apparently endemic to subxeric sites on Elbrook dolomite in Montgomery, Roanoke, and Pulaski counties. Most known occurrences are located in a belt of low dolomite knobs and foothills stretching from just south of Blacksburg eastward to the Roanoke County line. The type usually occupies middle to upper slopes and crests of south- or southwest-facing spur ridges at relatively low elevations (mean = 475 m, 1560 feet). High surface cover of exposed mineral soils and/or gravel is characteristic. Soils typically have a soft to loose consistency, with high pH (mean = 8.0), calcium (mean = 3590 ppm), and magnesium (mean = 1129 ppm) levels. Although habitats are subject to prolonged droughts, local areas of ephemeral vernal seepage occur in microtopographic concavities and are often indicated by colonies of Dodecatheon meadia. This community occurs in small patches and merges with both dry or dry-mesic forests and sparse lithophytic woodlands or scrub along a topographic-moisture gradient. It is not known to occur in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests. However, because substantial exposures of the Elbrook Formation occur throughout the western Virginia Ridge and Valley region and the two indicator/nominal herbs (Parthenium auriculatum, Packera plattensis) are recorded over a similar range, the community is of potential occurrence in a much larger area than its current documentation indicates.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group/Southeastern Ecology Group, mod. A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C. Reschke

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 1999. Plant communities of limestone, dolomite, and other calcareous substrates in the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-4. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 218 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Grossman, D. H., K. Lemon Goodin, and C. L. Reuss, editors. 1994. Rare plant communities of the conterminous United States: An initial survey. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. 620 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Weakley, A. S. 2010. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia, and surrounding areas. Unpublished working draft. University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU), North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. [http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/flora.htm]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016