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Salix nigra / Phalaris arundinacea - Apocynum cannabinum Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Black Willow / Reed Canarygrass - Indian-hemp Wet Shrubland
Common Name: Black Willow Riverbar Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006065
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is a willow shrubland of low riverbanks along moderate- to high-energy rivers in the northeastern U.S. and High Allegheny Plateau. It occurs on cobble substrates with sand and gravel in areas that are flooded only during high-water events, but receive winter ice-scour. It occupies an intermediate position along a disturbance gradient between open, herbaceous cobble shores and higher floodplain forests. Salix nigra is often dominant or codominant with other willows or dogwoods forming a dense shrub layer. Less frequent shrubs and tree saplings include Salix eriocephala, Salix lucida, Salix sericea, Alnus incana, Alnus serrulata, Cornus amomum, Cornus sericea, Spiraea alba var. latifolia, Platanus occidentalis, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, and Populus deltoides. The herbaceous layer is often sparse but variable in cover and composition, including Carex torta, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Panicum virgatum, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus virginicus, Justicia americana, Boehmeria cylindrica, Polygonum amphibium, Phalaris arundinacea, Calamagrostis canadensis, Apocynum cannabinum, Agrostis spp., Solidago gigantea, Solidago rugosa, Eupatorium maculatum, Rorippa islandica, Lysimachia terrestris, Polygonum spp., and Bidens spp. Invasive, exotic species can be problematic in this community, including Polygonum cuspidatum, Lythrum salicaria, Tussilago farfara, and Cynanchum louiseae.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Riverine Wetland Vegetation
Alliance Black Willow Riverscour Scrub

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005078 Salix interior - Salix eriocephala Sandbar Wet Shrubland
CEGL007052 Salix caroliniana Coastal Plain Wet Shrubland
CEGL007064 Salix caroliniana Ozark Riverscour Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Willow River-Bar Shrubland Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Black willow - alder floodplain (provisional) Equivalent   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Shrub Swamp Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Mixed alluvial shrubland Intersects   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Hampshire Willow low riverbank Finer   Sperduto 2000
New York Riverside sand/gravel bar Intersects Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Black willow scrub/shrub wetland Intersects   Fike 1999
Pennsylvania Willow - Indian-grass Floodplain Shrub Wetland Intersects   Zimmerman et al. 2012
Vermont Alluvial Shrub Swamp Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix nigra / Panicum dichotomiflorum community
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.
Related Concept Name: Salix nigra / Phalaris arundinacea - Apocynum cannabinum Temporarily Flooded Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Perles, S., G. Podniesinski, and J. Wagner. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg. 128 pp.
Related Concept Name: Willow Low Riverbank
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Nichols, W. F., J. M. Hoy, and D. D. Sperduto. 2001. Open riparian communities and riparian complexes in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 82 pp. plus appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (20Jun2006)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This community is not well-documented but occurs over a large range and is a frequent component of floodplain systems.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MDpotentially occurs, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, VT
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in the eastern United States from New Hampshire and Vermont south to Pennsylvania and New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Salix nigra is often dominant or codominant with other willows or dogwoods forming a dense shrub layer. Less frequent shrubs and tree saplings include Salix eriocephala, Salix lucida, Salix sericea, Alnus incana, Alnus serrulata, Cornus amomum, Cornus sericea (= Cornus stolonifera), Spiraea alba var. latifolia, Platanus occidentalis, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, and Populus deltoides. The herbaceous layer is typically sparse with variable composition, including Carex torta, Panicum dichotomiflorum, Panicum virgatum, Dichanthelium clandestinum (= Panicum clandestinum), Echinochloa crus-galli, Elymus virginicus, Phalaris arundinacea, Calamagrostis canadensis, Apocynum cannabinum (= Apocynum sibiricum), Agrostis spp., Solidago gigantea, Solidago rugosa, Eupatorium maculatum, Rorippa islandica, Lysimachia terrestris, Polygonum spp., and Bidens spp. Invasive, exotic species can be problematic in this community, including Polygonum cuspidatum, Lythrum salicaria, Tussilago farfara, and Cynanchum louiseae.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Platanus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Salix nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Cornus amomum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Apocynum cannabinum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Cynanchum louiseae G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Lythrum salicaria G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Persicaria hydropiper G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonum cuspidatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Tussilago farfara G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Echinochloa crus-galli G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Phalaris arundinacea G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on low riverbanks along moderate- to high-energy rivers on cobble substrates within a sand or gravel matrix.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: It occurs on cobble substrates with sand and gravel in areas that are flooded only during high-water events, but receive winter ice-scour. It occupies an intermediate position along a disturbance gradient between open, herbaceous cobble shores and higher floodplain forests.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 01May2013
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Jun2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Nichols, W. F., J. M. Hoy, and D. D. Sperduto. 2001. Open riparian communities and riparian complexes in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Inventory, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord, NH. 82 pp. plus appendices.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Perles, S., G. Podniesinski, and J. Wagner. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg. 128 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • TNC and WPC [The Nature Conservancy and Western Pennsylvania Conservancy]. 2004. Classification, assessment, and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg, PA. 128 pp.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011b. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Black Willow Floodplain Thicket Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30004] (accessed February 01, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011n. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Willow - Indian-grass Floodplain Shrub Wetland Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30022] (accessed February 03, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]

  • Zimmerman, E., and G. Podniesinski. 2008. Classification, assessment and protection of floodplain wetlands of the Ohio Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-973081-01-0. Report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Office of Conservation Science. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA.


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