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Carya (glabra, alba) - Fraxinus americana - (Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana) Woodland
Translated Name: (Pignut Hickory, Mockernut Hickory) - White Ash - (Eastern Red-cedar) Woodland
Common Name: Montane Basic Hardwood - Red-cedar Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003752
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These montane woodlands of the Southern Blue Ridge are currently known from the lower mountains of North Carolina and Georgia, at 750-1150 m (2500-3800 feet) elevation, on sites with biotite gneiss geology with veins of base-rich hornblende gneiss. They have open and stunted canopies (3-8 m tall), with or without gnarly Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana and various deciduous species, typically Carya glabra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus prinus, Ostrya virginiana, and Chionanthus virginicus. Occasionally, Pinus virginiana may be a component of the canopy mix. Occurrences are often physiognomic complexes of woodland, grassland, and rock outcropping, and are often associated with southern or eastern exposures on granitic domes or rocky summits. Some occurrences lack Juniperus virginiana but retain the same suite of species that are indicative of high base status rock. Shrubs are scattered or locally abundant and may include Ptelea trifoliata, Physocarpus opulifolius, Hypericum prolificum, Vaccinium stamineum, Vaccinium pallidum, Lonicera flava, Amelanchier sanguinea, and Rosa carolina. A dense, grassy herb layer can occur beneath the canopy or in open areas, interspersed with bare rock. Typical dominants include Carex pensylvanica, Dichanthelium scoparium, Danthonia compressa, Danthonia sericea, Andropogon gyrans, Andropogon ternarius, Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, Aristida purpurascens, and Melica mutica. Other herbaceous species can include Dodecatheon meadia, Solidago nemoralis, Pycnanthemum curvipes, Pycnanthemum montanum, Hypericum punctatum, Hypericum gentianoides, Desmodium rotundifolium, Antennaria virginica, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Packera millefolia (= Senecio millefolium), Helianthus microcephalus, Claytonia virginica, Coreopsis major, and Coreopsis pubescens. The steepest areas may have patches of Sedum glaucophyllum, Houstonia longifolia, and Saxifraga michauxii.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Some sites grade into forests dominated by Quercus prinus. In an 1134-plot regional analysis for the Southern Appalachian portion of the Appalachian Trail, only three Georgia plots were classified as this type (Fleming and Patterson 2009a).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Chinquapin Oak - Shumard Oak - Blue Ash Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Piedmont-Appalachian Ash - Hickory Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003683 Fraxinus americana - Carya glabra / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Helianthus divaricatus - Solidago ulmifolia Woodland
CEGL003684 Fraxinus americana - Carya glabra / Symphoricarpos orbiculatus - Rhus aromatica / Piptochaetium avenaceum Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Montane Red Cedar-Hardwood Woodland Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Juniperus virginiana / Chionanthus virginicus / Cheilanthes lanosa - Sedum glaucophyllum Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Eastern Redcedar: 46
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Red Cedar--Hardwood Woodland (Montane Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Montane Red Cedar-Hardwood Woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Red-cedar - Hardwood Woodland, Montane Subtype
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.348 Southern and Central Appalachian Mafic Glade and Barrens


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (14Dec1998)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This community is limited to regionally uncommon and small exposures of moderately nutrient-rich rock in the Southern Blue Ridge, and is thought to be inherently rare because of its unusual geology and topographic position. Total acreage of this community may be less than 1000 acres. Threats are few, although logging in adjacent areas can cause unnatural disturbance, along with alteration of light and seepage flow.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Southern Blue Ridge of western North Carolina and Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The open and stunted (3-5 m) canopy of stands is dominated by gnarly Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana or by various deciduous species, typically Carya glabra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus prinus, Ostrya virginiana, and Chionanthus virginicus. Occasionally, Pinus virginiana may be a component of the canopy mix. Shrubs are scattered or locally abundant and may include Ptelea trifoliata, Physocarpus opulifolius, Hypericum prolificum, Vaccinium stamineum, Vaccinium pallidum, Lonicera flava, Amelanchier sanguinea, and Rosa carolina. A dense, grassy herb layer can occur beneath the canopy or in open areas, interspersed with bare rock. Typical dominants include Carex pensylvanica, Dichanthelium scoparium, Danthonia compressa, Danthonia sericea, Andropogon gyrans, Andropogon ternarius, Andropogon gerardii, Sorghastrum nutans, Schizachyrium scoparium var. scoparium, Aristida purpurascens, and Melica mutica. Other herbaceous species include Allium cernuum, Dodecatheon meadia, Solidago nemoralis, Solidago sphacelata, Pycnanthemum montanum, Pycnanthemum curvipes, Hypericum punctatum, Hypericum gentianoides, Desmodium rotundifolium, Antennaria virginica, Piptochaetium avenaceum, Packera millefolia (= Senecio millefolium), Helianthus microcephalus, Claytonia virginica, Coreopsis major, and Coreopsis pubescens. The steepest areas may have patches of Sedum glaucophyllum, Houstonia longifolia, and Saxifraga michauxii.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya alba G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya glabra G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Fraxinus americana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Berberis canadensis G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Vaccinium stamineum G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Hypericum prolificum G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Arabis patens G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Calystegia catesbeiana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Coreopsis pubescens var. robusta G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Croton elliottii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Krigia montana G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera millefolia G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Penstemon smallii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pycnanthemum curvipes G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rudbeckia triloba var. pinnatiloba G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rudbeckia triloba var. rupestris G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago simulans G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex biltmoreana G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Danthonia compressa G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium scoparium G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Arabis patens
  (Spreading Rockcress)
G3  
Berberis canadensis
  (American Barberry)
G3  
Calystegia catesbeiana
  (Catesby's False Bindweed)
G3  
Carex biltmoreana
  (Biltmore's Sedge)
G3  
Croton elliottii
  (Elliott's Croton)
G3  
Krigia montana
  (False Dandelion)
G3  
Packera millefolia
  (Blue Ridge Ragwort)
G3  
Penstemon smallii
  (Small's Beardtongue)
G3  
Pycnanthemum curvipes
  (Stone Mountainmint)
G3  
Rudbeckia triloba var. pinnatiloba
  (Pinnate-lobe Black-eyed-Susan)
G5T3  
Rudbeckia triloba var. rupestris
  (Pinnate-lobe Black-eyed-Susan)
G5T3?  
Solidago simulans
  (Granite Dome Goldenrod)
G2  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Occurrences are often physiognomic complexes of woodland, grassland, and rock outcropping, and are often associated with southern or eastern exposures on granitic domes or rocky summits. These woodlands are currently known from the lower mountains of North Carolina and Georgia at 750-1150 m (2500-3800 feet) elevation, on sites with biotite gneiss geology with veins of base-rich hornblende gneiss.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Southern Blue Ridge Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 24Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): T. Govus and G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Dec1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Dellinger, B. 1992. Natural areas survey, Nantahala National Forest, Highlands Ranger District: Site survey reports. Unpublished data. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Small, C. J. 1996. Characterization of montane cedar-hardwood woodlands in the Southern Blue Ridge Province. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 79 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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