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Pinus banksiana / Kalmia angustifolia - Vaccinium spp. Woodland
Translated Name: Jack Pine / Sheep Laurel - Blueberry species Woodland
Common Name: Jack Pine Heath Barrens
Unique Identifier: CEGL006041
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: The jack pine woodland of northern New England and the Canadian maritime provinces occurs sporadically on dry rocky summits, ridges, outcrops and lakeshores. Soil development is typically restricted to crevices or sheltered patches among the predominant exposed bedrock. Where they occur, soils are shallow, well-drained to excessively drained, dry, acidic, coarse sands. Elevations of known examples range from near sea level to 1220 m (4000 feet). The dominant vegetation features are the patchy and open canopy and the extensive dwarf-shrub layer. Tall shrubs and herbs are sparse. The bryoid layer often features large areas of reindeer lichens and drought-tolerant mosses. The ground cover is sparse needle litter and exposed bedrock. In the canopy, which ranges from 25-60% cover, Pinus banksiana is dominant. Less abundant conifers may include Picea rubens, Picea mariana (at coastal sites), Pinus strobus, or Abies balsamea. Betula papyrifera var. papyrifera and Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia may be present, but the deciduous canopy component is minor. Tall shrubs include Sorbus americana, Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides, Ilex mucronata, Aronia melanocarpa, or Amelanchier spp. The low heath layer is composed of Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Gaylussacia baccata, Kalmia angustifolia, and, near the coast, Empetrum nigrum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Forbs and graminoids include Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Sibbaldiopsis tridentata, Cornus canadensis, Trientalis borealis, Solidago simplex var. randii, and Maianthemum canadense. The bryophyte layer is dominated by lichens such as Cladonia stellaris, Cladonia rangiferina, Rhizocarpon geographicum, and Umbilicaria spp. Mosses include Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum juniperinum, and Polytrichum piliferum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Pine - Hardwood Forest & Woodland
Group Laurentian-Acadian Pine - Oak Forest & Woodland
Alliance Jack Pine - Red Pine - Northern Pin Oak Forest & Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002478 Pinus banksiana - (Pinus resinosa) - Quercus ellipsoidalis / Carex pensylvanica Forest
CEGL002483 Pinus banksiana - (Picea mariana, Pinus strobus) / Vaccinium spp. Rocky Woodland
CEGL002491 Pinus banksiana / Cladonia spp. Rock Outcrop Vegetation
CEGL005045 Pinus banksiana / Aronia melanocarpa / Xanthoparmelia spp. Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maine Jack pine woodland Equivalent   Gawler 2002
New Hampshire Jack pine rocky ridge Equivalent   Sperduto 2000
New York Spruce-fir rocky summit Broader   Edinger et al. 2002



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.571 Northern Appalachian-Acadian Rocky Heath Outcrop


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G5 (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ME, NH, NY
Canadian Province Distribution: NB, NSpotentially occurs, PEpotentially occurs, QC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This jack pine woodland community occurs in northern New England and the Canadian maritime provinces.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Aroostook Hills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Maine-New Brunswick Foothills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The dominant vegetation features are the patchy and open canopy and the extensive dwarf-shrub layer. Tall shrubs and herbs are sparse. The bryoid layer often features large areas of reindeer lichens and drought-tolerant mosses. The ground cover is sparse needle litter and exposed bedrock. In the canopy, which ranges from 25-60% cover, Pinus banksiana is dominant. Less abundant conifers may include Picea rubens, Picea mariana (at coastal sites), Pinus strobus, or Abies balsamea. Betula papyrifera var. papyrifera and Betula papyrifera var. cordifolia may be present, but the deciduous canopy component is minor. Tall shrubs include Sorbus americana, Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides, Ilex mucronata (= Nemopanthus mucronatus), Aronia melanocarpa, or Amelanchier spp. The low heath layer is composed of Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Gaylussacia baccata, Kalmia angustifolia, and, near the coast, Empetrum nigrum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. Forbs and graminoids include Deschampsia flexuosa, Danthonia spicata, Sibbaldiopsis tridentata, Cornus canadensis, Trientalis borealis, Solidago simplex var. randii, and Maianthemum canadense. The bryophyte layer is dominated by lichens such as Cladonia stellaris (= Cladonia alpestris), Cladonia rangiferina, Rhizocarpon geographicum, and Umbilicaria spp. Mosses include Pleurozium schreberi, Polytrichum juniperinum, and Polytrichum piliferum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus banksiana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Empetrum nigrum G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Vaccinium vitis-idaea G4 Dwarf-shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Vaccinium angustifolium G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium myrtilloides G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Kalmia angustifolia G4 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: The jack pine woodland of northern New England and the Canadian maritime provinces occurs sporadically on dry rocky summits, ridges, outcrops and lakeshores. Soil development is typically restricted to crevices or sheltered patches among the predominant exposed bedrock. Where they occur, soils are shallow, well-drained to excessively drained, dry, acidic, coarse sands. Elevations of known examples range from near sea level to 1220 m (4000 feet).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team and L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 27Jan2003
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Baldwin, H. I. 1961. Exploring for jack pine in New Hampshire. Society for Protection of New Hampshire Forests. Forest Notes 72:33-34.

  • Baldwin, H. I. 1979. The distribution of Pinus banksiana Lamb. in New England and New York. Rhodora 81:549-565.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Clayden, S., and A. Bouchard. 1983. Structure and dynamics of conifer-lichen stands on rock outcrops south of Lake Abitibi, Quebec. Canadian Journal of Botany 61:850-871.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.


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