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Quercus alba - Quercus stellata - Carya carolinae-septentrionalis / Acer leucoderme - Cercis canadensis Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Post Oak - Southern Shagbark Hickory / Chalk Maple - Eastern Redbud Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Mafic Dry Oak - Hickory Forest (Post Oak Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007773
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This Piedmont forest occurs on soils derived from mafic rocks, in the Carolina Slate Belt and possibly elsewhere. The canopy is dominated by Quercus alba and Quercus stellata. Also present and diagnostic of this type are woody species indicative of rich, circumneutral, or mafic conditions in the region, especially Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Ostrya virginiana, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Acer leucoderme, Fraxinus americana, and Ulmus alata. Other woody species may include Carya glabra, Carya alba, Pinus echinata, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Cornus florida, Quercus phellos, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, and Ilex decidua. Shrubs and woody vines include Vaccinium arboreum and Vitis rotundifolia. The herb stratum is sparse and has scattered individuals of species such as Danthonia spicata, Clitoria mariana, Chimaphila maculata, Scleria sp., and Asplenium platyneuron.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Quercus rubra has been removed from name as it is unclear when or why it was this added. According to M. Schafale, it is not appropriate for the concept (dry forest), and would not be expected, much less as an appropriate nominal.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Piedmont-Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Forest
Alliance Piedmont Post Oak - Hickory - Pine Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007232 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL008489 Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Acer leucoderme / Piptochaetium avenaceum Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Dry Basic Oak--Hickory Forest Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Basic Oak--Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.339 Southern Piedmont Dry Oak-(Pine) Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (03Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This forest is restricted in range, and its occurrences are limited to soils derived from mafic rocks. All known occurrences are on mafic members of `Carolina slate' (metavolcanics). Some occurrences may be protected on the Uwharrie National Forest (North Carolina). High-quality examples are rare; occurrences are threatened by timber removal, land-use conversion, and development. All known occurrences have been altered by timber removal.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GA, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is apparently restricted to the Piedmont, from Alabama north to North Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of typical stands of this forest association is dominated by Quercus alba, Quercus stellata, Quercus falcata, Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Pinus echinata, Acer leucoderme, Fraxinus americana, and Ulmus alata. Subcanopy trees include Ostrya virginiana, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Cornus florida, Quercus phellos, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, and Ilex decidua. Shrubs and woody vines include Vaccinium arboreum and Vitis rotundifolia. The herb stratum is sparse and has scattered individuals of species such as Danthonia spicata, Clitoria mariana, Chimaphila maculata, Scleria sp., and Asplenium platyneuron. In a stand assigned here from Oconee National Forest (Georgia), the prevalent maple is recorded as Acer barbatum. The shrubs Callicarpa americana and Viburnum rufidulum are present. One indicator herb here is Cynoglossum virginianum. In typical stands, Quercus rubra is absent or at low cover.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest occurs on soils derived from mafic rocks in the Piedmont region of the United States. Known occurrences are on mafic members of "Carolina slate" (metavolcanics).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 22Feb2007
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley, R.E. Evans and M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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