NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Betula occidentalis / Crataegus douglasii Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Water Birch / Black Hawthorn Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001081
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is a riparian, bottomland community found on perennial third order streams to small rivers in medium to large U-shaped, valley bottoms. Occurrences occur at relatively low elevations in the valleys and mountains of eastern Oregon, eastern Idaho, and western Idaho. Betula occidentalis forms a low, patchy canopy along the stream, and occasionally spreads out throughout the floodplain with cover ranging from 30-50%. Crataegus douglasii is found throughout the bottomland, creating shrub thickets with overall cover ranging from 20-40%. Other trees and tall shrubs are rare, but can include Salix species (Salix exigua, Salix geyeriana, or Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra), Cornus sericea, Populus tremuloides, or Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa. Low shrubs (Rosa woodsii, Ribes aureum, Toxicodendron radicans), graminoids (Leymus cinereus, Carex spp., Deschampsia cespitosa, Carex amplifolia, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis) dominate the understory, along with some non-native grasses and forbs (Bromus tectorum, Poa pratensis, Verbascum thapsus and Solanum dulcamara).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This type appears to really be two types: Betula occidentalis / Crataegus douglasii shrubland growing along streambanks, and Crataegus douglasii / Rosa woodsii along upper stream terraces, that are adjacent to each other (J. Kagan pers. comm.). He is uncertain if it should remain in the classification, so the rank changed from G2 to G1Q and Confidence level = 3. This community type has been around forever, but is completely without plot data. While reported from Idaho, there are no known sites. Evans (1989a) does not mention this type from Washington, but it is currently listed as occurring there (J. Kagan pers. comm.). It is historically known from three sites in Oregon, two in the High Lava Plains (on the Columbia Plateau), and one in the Blue Mountains. When seen in the 1980s, all of the Oregon sites were grazed and somewhat degraded. It is quite possible that with exclusion from grazing, the Betula occidentalis along the stream would turn into one of the known Betula occidentalis types while the Crataegus douglasii in the valley floor would become a known Crataegus douglasii association.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Water Birch Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Betula occidentalis - Crataegus douglasii Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Oregon Betula occidentalis - Crataegus douglasii Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Betula occidentalis / Crataegus douglasii shrubland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Kagan, Jimmy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.
Related Concept Name: Betula occidentalis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Evans, S. 1989a. Riparian survey of Washington's Columbia Basin. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, Washington.
Related Concept Name: Crataegus douglasii / Rosa woodsii
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Kagan, Jimmy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES304.768 Columbia Basin Foothill Riparian Woodland and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (26Apr2000)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This is a low-elevation, riparian association which has been greatly impacted by cattle grazing. It is currently known from a few sites in eastern Oregon, and possibly from western Idaho and southern Washington. All of the known sites are on private lands, and none are protected. The inventory for low-elevation riparian communities is incomplete, and the lack of high-quality occurrences makes characterization of this type quite difficult, resulting in a G1Q rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ID, OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This type is known from low-elevation riparian areas at the southern margin of the Grande Ronde valley (in the Idaho Batholith region), and in a few small tributaries of the Deschutes River in the High Lava Plains ecoregion of the Columbia Plateau. It is reported from the Columbia Plateau and Palouse region of southern Washington and western Idaho.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: High Lava Plains Section
Section Code: 342H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Columbia Basin Section
Section Code: 342I Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Mountains Section
Section Code: M332G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Betula occidentalis forms a low, patchy canopy along the stream, and occasionally spreads out throughout the floodplain with cover ranging from 30-50%. Crataegus douglasii is found throughout the bottomland, creating shrub thickets with overall cover ranging from 20-40%. Other trees and tall shrubs are rare, but can include Salix species (Salix exigua, Salix geyeriana, or Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra), Cornus sericea, Populus tremuloides, or Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (= Populus trichocarpa). Low shrubs (Rosa woodsii, Ribes aureum, Toxicodendron radicans), graminoids (Leymus cinereus (= Elymus cinereus), Carex spp., Deschampsia cespitosa, Carex amplifolia, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus)) dominate the understory, along with some non-native grasses and forbs (Bromus tectorum, Poa pratensis, Verbascum thapsus, Solanum dulcamara).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Betula occidentalis G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Crataegus douglasii G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Solanum dulcamara G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Verbascum thapsus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Bromus tectorum G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Poa pratensis G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This is a riparian, bottomland community found on perennial third order streams to small rivers in medium to large U-shaped, valley bottoms.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J.S. Kagan
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): J.S. Kagan
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Nov1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J.S. Kagan

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Evans, S. 1989a. Riparian survey of Washington's Columbia Basin. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia, Washington.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kagan, Jimmy. Personal communication. Coordinator, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

  • Moseley, R. K. 1986. Establishment record, Snowy Top Research Natural Area within Kaniksu National Forest, Boundary County, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, by The Nature Conservancy, Moscow, ID. 22 pp.

  • ORNHP [Oregon Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data files. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Portland, OR.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019