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Pinus serotina - Gordonia lasianthus / Lyonia lucida Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pond Pine - Loblolly-bay / Shining Fetterbush Swamp Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003671
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occurs in Outer Coastal Plain peat domes and large peat-filled Carolina bays of eastern North Carolina and northern South Carolina. The open canopy consists of mixtures of Pinus serotina and Gordonia lasianthus, generally codominant. Various pocosin shrubs form a dense shrub stratum; typical species include Lyonia lucida, Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Smilax laurifolia, Persea palustris, and others. The herb stratum is typically very sparse. In some areas, as in the Green Swamp, Brunswick County, North Carolina, this community occurs as islands in Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida Woodland (Kologiski 1977). In other areas, it forms the landscape matrix in unbroken blocks of up to 100 square kilometers.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Evergreen Hardwood - Conifer Swamp
Group Coastal Plain Mixed Evergreen Swamp
Alliance Pond Pine Swamp Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003670 Pinus serotina / Cyrilla racemiflora - Lyonia lucida - Ilex glabra Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Pond Pine Woodland (Typic Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus serotina - Gordonia lasianthus / Lyonia lucida Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kologiski, R. L. 1977. The phytosociology of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 250. 101 pp.
Related Concept Name: IIC1b. High Pocosin
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland (Loblolly Subtype)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland (Shrub Subtype)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (30Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community still has extensive occurrences (several exceeding 10,000 acres in size) in the Outer Coastal Plain of North Carolina and South Carolina. Its extent is probably about 50% of the historical extent, because of ditching, draining, and farming of wetlands. This community had a natural fire regime involving periodic fires; this fire regime is now altered by fire suppression, though wildfires in these systems are often uncontrollable and burn extensive areas. Several examples are on protected areas (though fire regime alteration is still the case, since these extensive blocks of high-fuel communities cannot be control-burned legally).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is restricted to the Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina, where it occurs in association with large peatlands.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The open canopy consists of mixtures of Pinus serotina and Gordonia lasianthus, generally codominant. Various pocosin shrubs form a dense shrub stratum; typical species include Lyonia lucida, Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Smilax laurifolia, Persea palustris, and others. The herb stratum is typically very sparse.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Gordonia lasianthus G3 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus serotina G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Lyonia lucida G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Kalmia cuneata G3 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Kalmia cuneata
  (White-wicky)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs in large peatlands of the outer and middle Coastal Plain of North Carolina and northern South Carolina. It is attributed to the Francis Marion National Forest of South Carolina.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is maintained and altered by periodic fires.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): S. Landaal
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Kologiski, R. L. 1977. The phytosociology of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 250. 101 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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