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Juniperus virginiana / Bouteloua curtipendula - Carex eburnea Wooded Grassland
Translated Name: Eastern Red-cedar / Sideoats Grama - Bristleleaf Sedge Wooded Grassland
Common Name: Northeastern Red-cedar Limestone Glade
Unique Identifier: CEGL006047
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This small-patch calcareous slope or rocky summit community occurs in southern New England and portions of the northern Piedmont. These xeric, south-facing calcareous slopes or outcrops support small grassland openings characterized by Schizachyrium scoparium and Bouteloua curtipendula. Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana is usually present as a stunted, sparse canopy. Other possible woody associates may include Fraxinus americana, Ostrya virginiana, or Quercus muehlenbergii. Shrubs are sparse but when present may include Celtis occidentalis or Cornus alternifolia. The herbaceous composition is quite diverse and variable among occurrences but often includes such species as Carex eburnea, Anemone cylindrica, Solidago bicolor, Panicum virgatum, Carex pensylvanica, Lespedeza violacea, Lespedeza capitata, Asclepias viridiflora, Asclepias verticillata, Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Sporobolus compositus, Triosteum aurantiacum, Patis racemosa, Pycnanthemum incanum, Sorghastrum nutans, Onosmodium spp., Packera aurea, Packera obovata, and others. This community occurs in association with forests characterized by Quercus muehlenbergii.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: These communities are closely related to several other sparse woodlands in the Juniperus virginiana alliance. They also intergrade substantially with limestone/calcareous woodlands. Several of the more northern occurrences of this community are essentially small, successional, herbaceous patches occurring within Quercus muehlenbergii woodlands. Floristically they may be considered depauperate versions of the more extensive occurrences of this community in West Virginia. New York may contain some examples of this community which they classify under the name "red cedar rocky summit community."

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.2 - Temperate Grassland & Shrubland
Division 2.B.2.Nc - Eastern North American Grassland & Shrubland
Macrogroup Central Appalachian-Northeast Scrub & Grassland Macrogroup
Group North-Central Appalachian Alkaline Rocky Scrub & Grassland
Alliance Northeastern Bedrock Grassland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Circumneutral rocky summit/outcrop Undetermined   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Massachusetts Calcareous Rocky Summit/Rock Outcrop Community Undetermined   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Jersey Limestone glade Undetermined   Breden 1989
New York Calcareous red cedar barrens Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Red-cedar - redbud shrubland Undetermined   Fike 1999
West Virginia Juniperus virginiana / Bouteloua curtipendula - Schizachyrium scoparium Wooded Grassland Equivalent Certain WVNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Schizachyrium scoparium - Bouteloua curtipendula medium-tall grasslands
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.
Related Concept Name: SNE Calcareous Rocky summit/ Rock Outcrop Community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.602 Central Appalachian Alkaline Glade and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1G2 (30Nov1998)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: Fewer than 100 occurrences are estimated to occur for this community rangewide. Total acreage is likely less than 200 acres. The thin soil and sloping terrain are undesirable for agriculture, but where this community occurs close to urban centers, it is vulnerable to residential and commercial development. It is also threatened by mining. In New Jersey, for example, the two known occurrences are thought to be remnants of vegetation that was lost to mining. GRank is changed from G2 to G1G2 after further consideration of threat, patch size, and range.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MApotentially occurs, MDpotentially occurs, NJ, NY, PA, VApotentially occurs, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community has been described from calcareous regions in western Connecticut, eastern Pennsylvania, northeastern New Jersey, and the Ridge and Valley Province of northeastern West Virginia. A few examples may occur in New York and Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community occurs as exposed, mainly herbaceous, openings on calcareous slopes and ridgetops. Occurrences are generally less than 0.1 ha in size and usually bordered by open woodlands or forest. Tree cover is sparse, ranging from 10-30% cover with Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana being the most constant canopy tree. Other woody species usually present include Carya glabra, Celtis occidentalis, Cercis canadensis, Fraxinus americana, and Ostrya virginiana. The presence of these species is somewhat dependent on the composition of the surrounding woodland. A few shrubs including Rosa carolina, Amelanchier spp., Rhus aromatica, and Symphoricarpos albus occur as scattered individuals. The herbaceous layer covers 12-70% of the ground and is usually dominated by Schizachyrium scoparium and Bouteloua curtipendula. Numerous other herbaceous species and graminoids occur in this community. In addition to the species mentioned previously, this type often includes Carex eburnea, Anemone cylindrica, Solidago bicolor, Panicum virgatum, Carex pensylvanica, Lespedeza violacea, Lespedeza capitata, Asclepias viridiflora, Asclepias verticillata, Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Sporobolus compositus (= Sporobolus asper), Triosteum aurantiacum, Patis racemosa (= Oryzopsis racemosa), Pycnanthemum incanum, Sorghastrum nutans, Onosmodium spp., Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Packera obovata (= Senecio obovatus), Danthonia spicata, Carex pensylvanica, Solidago ulmifolia, Poa compressa, Saxifraga michauxii, Lithospermum canescens, Opuntia humifusa (= var. humifusa), Aquilegia canadensis, Arabis lyrata, Elymus hystrix, Houstonia longifolia, and many others. No single species is restricted to this community. Several rare species occur in this community, including Astragalus neglectus, Monarda fistulosa var. brevis, Delphinium exaltatum, Paronychia virginica, Paxistima canbyi, Pycnanthemum torrei, and Pycnanthemum clinopodioides.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Juniperus virginiana G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Paxistima canbyi G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Antennaria plantaginifolia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Asclepias verticillata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Astragalus neglectus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Delphinium exaltatum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Helianthus divaricatus G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Minuartia michauxii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1 G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Packera obovata G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Paronychia virginica G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Pycnanthemum torrei G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Bouteloua curtipendula G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex eburnea G1 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Schizachyrium scoparium G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Delphinium exaltatum
  (Tall Larkspur)
G3  
Monarda fistulosa ssp. 1
  (Smoke Hole Bergamot)
G5T1T2  
Paxistima canbyi
  (Canby's Mountain-lover)
G2?  
Pycnanthemum clinopodioides
  (Basil Mountainmint)
G1G2  
Pycnanthemum torrei
  (Torrey's Mountainmint)
G2  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This sparse woodland occurs primarily on xeric calcareous ridgetops, summits and hillsides in the mid-Atlantic region. Sites where this community occurs are moderately steep-sloped hillsides or ridgetops on calcareous bedrock such as limestone, dolomite, calcareous shale or marble. Soils are characteristically thin and rocky, with little or no profile development. Aspect is typically south or southwest.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 03Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): M. Anderson, S.L. Neid and G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Nov1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. L. 1985a. A limestone glade in West Virginia. Bartonia 51:34-36.

  • Bartgis, R. L. 1993. The limestone glades and barrens of West Virginia. Castanea 58:69-89.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J. 2003a. Nellie Hill: A Lower New England-Northern Piedmont limestone cedar glade. New York Natural Heritage Program report submitted to Eastern New York Chapter of The Nature Conservancy, Mount Kisco, NY. 99 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Grossman, D. H., K. Lemon Goodin, and C. L. Reuss, editors. 1994. Rare plant communities of the conterminous United States: An initial survey. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. 620 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Smith, T. L. No date (a). Natural ecological communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory, East, Harrisburg, PA. 97 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.


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