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Pinus banksiana - Thuja occidentalis - Picea glauca / Juniperus communis Woodland
Translated Name: Jack Pine - Northern White-cedar - White Spruce / Common Juniper Woodland
Common Name: Mixed Conifer / Common Juniper Limestone Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL005126
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: The mixed conifer / common juniper alvar woodland type occurs scattered through the Great Lakes region in the United States and Canada, from southern Ontario and northern Michigan, to northern New York. Stands occur on shallow soils over flat limestone or dolostone outcrops (pavements). The trees form a partial canopy with 25-60% cover. The tree canopy consists of a variable mixture of Picea glauca, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus banksiana, Abies balsamea, and Pinus strobus. The understory of this woodland is a mosaic of shrubby patches, exposed pavement, and grassy patches. The most abundant shrub is Juniperus communis; other characteristic shrubs include Juniperus horizontalis, Shepherdia canadensis, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Characteristic herbs include Trichostema brachiatum, Carex crawei, Packera paupercula, Carex eburnea, Carex richardsonii, and Sporobolus vaginiflorus. Areas of exposed limestone or dolostone pavement are common, usually with a cover of mosses such as Tortella spp. and Schistidium spp., lichens such as Cladonia rangiferina and Peltigera canina, and rock surface algae such as Gloeocapsa alpina. This community is closely related to juniper alvar shrubland, and may represent a later successional stage of that community. The main difference between mixed conifer / common juniper alvar woodland and juniper alvar grassland is the higher cover of trees (over 5 m tall) in the mixed conifer / common juniper alvar woodland.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This type is not as well documented as other alvars and its distribution may be broader than indicated here. This community is closely related to the Juniper Alvar Shrubland, Juniperus communis - (Juniperus virginiana) - Rhus aromatica - Viburnum rafinesqueanum / Oligoneuron album Shrubland (CEGL005212), and may represent a later successional stage of that community. The main difference between this type and the Juniper Alvar Shrubland is the higher cover of trees (over 5 m tall) in this type (Reschke et al. 1998).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Pine - Hardwood Forest & Woodland
Group Laurentian-Acadian Limestone Woodland
Alliance Northern White-cedar Limestone Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005050 Thuja occidentalis Limestone Bedrock Woodland
CEGL005211 Picea glauca - Thuja occidentalis - Juniperus communis / Iris lacustris - Carex eburnea Shrubland
CEGL005212 Juniperus communis - (Juniperus virginiana) - Rhus aromatica - Viburnum rafinesqueanum / Oligoneuron album Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Michigan Limestone Bedrock Glade Broader   Kost et al. 2007
New York Alvar Woodland Undetermined   Edinger et al. 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pinus banksiana - Thuja occidentalis - Picea glauca / Juniperus communis Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney, and H. Potter, on behalf of the Alvar Working Group. 1998. Conserving Great Lakes Alvars. Final Technical Report of the International Alvar Conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Great Lakes Program, Chicago, IL. 119 pp. plus 4 appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.721 Great Lakes Alvar


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2? (31Dec1998)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This type probably occurs scattered through the Great Lakes region in southern Ontario, northern Michigan, and northern New York, but it has not been well-documented. Nine occurrences of this community have been documented, with a total of over 1334 acres (540 ha).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MI, NY
Canadian Province Distribution: ON, QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This mixed conifer / common juniper alvar woodland type is scattered throughout the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, from southern Ontario and northern Michigan to northern New York.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code: 212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 212H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The trees form a partial canopy with 25-60% cover. The tree canopy consists of a variable mixture of Picea glauca, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus banksiana, Abies balsamea, and Pinus strobus. The understory of this woodland is a mosaic of shrubby patches, exposed pavement, and grassy patches. The most abundant shrub is Juniperus communis; other characteristic shrubs include Juniperus horizontalis, Shepherdia canadensis, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Characteristic herbs include Trichostema brachiatum, Carex crawei, Packera paupercula (= Senecio pauperculus), Carex eburnea, Carex richardsonii, and Sporobolus vaginiflorus. Areas of exposed limestone or dolostone pavement are common, usually with a cover of mosses such as Tortella spp. and Schistidium spp., lichens such as Cladonia rangiferina and Peltigera canina, and rock surface algae such as Gloeocapsa alpina (Reschke et al. 1998).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Picea glauca G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus banksiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Thuja occidentalis G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Juniperus communis G2 Needle-leaved shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Stands occur on shallow soils over flat limestone or dolostone outcrops (pavements) (Reschke et al. 1998).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): C. Reschke et al. (1998)
Element Description Edition Date: 22Apr1999
Element Description Author(s): C. Reschke
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Dec1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C. Reschke

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney, and H. Potter, on behalf of the Alvar Working Group. 1998. Conserving Great Lakes Alvars. Final Technical Report of the International Alvar Conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Great Lakes Program, Chicago, IL. 119 pp. plus 4 appendices.


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