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Sparganium angustifolium Aquatic Vegetation
Translated Name: Narrowleaf Bur-reed Aquatic Vegetation
Unique Identifier: CEGL001990
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This aquatic association has been found in California, Oregon, Washington and Colorado, but likely occurs in many parts of montane, subalpine, alpine and boreal North America as this circumboreal species is reported from the western and northeastern U.S., Great Lakes region, across Canada and Alaska and likely is has a much wider distribution. This hydromorphic-rooted vegetation occurs in shallow water to 1 m deep. Stands occur in saturated or inundated sites such as swales and wet meadows and marshes, shallow ponds and near the shoreline of deeper ponds and lakes. Sites are generally permanently flooded but can be semipermanently flooded areas that lack standing water towards the end of the growing season. If the stand has dried, then bare soil and small rocks are exposed. The ponds are often located in mountain parks or meadows and are the result of stream oxbows or glacial basins in broad valleys. Soils are typically very poorly drained muck or peat and can contain embedded cobbles or rocks. Stands grow equally well on either gravelly or muddy bottoms. Salinity of water varies with the different parent materials. Diagnostic of this aquatic community is the strong dominance of Sparganium angustifolium. Vegetation consists of moderately dense mats of the hydromorphic-rooted plant Sparganium angustifolium. These vegetation mats are rarely over 0.6 m thick and may be much less depending on the depth of the pond. Stunted individuals may be less than 10 cm tall. Associated species with low cover include Alisma triviale, Beckmannia syzigachne, Carex utriculata, Cicuta douglasii, Eleocharis palustris, Equisetum fluviatile, Galium trifidum, Glyceria borealis, Hippuris vulgaris, Lemna minor, Sium suave, or Typha spp. Diagnostic of this aquatic association is the dominance of Sparganium angustifolium.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type, the species would include Sparganium americanum and Sparganium minimum (SPMI).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 5 - Aquatic Vegetation
Subclass 5.B - Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Formation 5.B.2 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Division 5.B.2.Na - North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Macrogroup Western North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Group Western North American Temperate Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Alliance Mare's-tail - Widgeonweed - Bur-reed Aquatic Vegetation

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Colorado Sparganium angustifolium Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain CNHP 2015
Oregon Sparganium angustifolium Community Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium - Ranunculus trichophyllus Community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Cooper, D. J. 1986a. Ecological studies of wetland vegetation, Cross Creek Valley, Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Holy Cross Wilderness Defense Fund, Technical Report No. 2. 24 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium (S. emersum) Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium Aquatic Community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Robbins, W. W. 1918. Successions of vegetation in Boulder Park, Colorado. Botanical Gazette 65(6):493-525.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fuller, G. D. 1930. A comparison of certain Rocky Mountain grasslands with the prairie of Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 8:121-130.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium Habitat Type/Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Komarkova, V. 1986. Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre national forests. Unpublished final report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO. 270 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium angustifolium Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Keeler-Wolf, T., P. E. Moore, E. T. Reyes, J. M. Menke, D. N. Johnson, and D. L. Karavidas. 2012. Yosemite National Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/YOSE/NRTR--2012/598. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium emersum Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium emersum community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sparganium spp. Association
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Bur-reed Series
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane and Subalpine Lakes
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Ramaley, F. 1919a. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany 6:120-130.
Related Concept Name: Simplestem Bur-reed Herbaceous Vegetation (Sparganium angustifolium)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES200.877 Temperate Pacific Freshwater Emergent Marsh
CES300.729 North American Arid West Emergent Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (03May2000)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CA, CO, ID, OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: It is likely that this nearly monospecific association occurs in many parts of montane, subalpine and boreal North America; presently it has been identified from California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Colorado.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Sierra Nevada Section
Section Code: M261E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This aquatic association is characterized by moderately dense to dense mats of the hydromorphic-rooted plant Sparganium angustifolium. These vegetation mats are rarely over 0.6 m thick and may be much less depending on the depth of the pond. Stunted individuals may be less than 10 cm tall. Associated species with low cover include Alisma triviale, Beckmannia syzigachne, Carex utriculata, Cicuta douglasii, Eleocharis palustris, Equisetum fluviatile, Galium trifidum, Glyceria borealis, Hippuris vulgaris, Lemna minor, Sium suave, or Typha spp. (Kovalchik 1993, Hall and Hansen 1997). Vegetation on adjacent mudflats and shorelines is dominated by shrub or herbaceous wetland plants such as Eleocharis acicularis, Ranunculus trichophyllus var. trichophyllus, Callitriche palustris, Schoenoplectus acutus (= Scirpus acutus), Typha latifolia, or species of Carex, Juncus or Salix.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Sparganium angustifolium G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This aquatic association has been found in California, Oregon, Washington and Colorado, but likely occurs in many parts of montane, subalpine, alpine and boreal North America as this circumboreal species is reported from the western and northeastern U.S., Great Lakes region, across Canada and Alaska and likely is has a much wider distribution. Elevations range from 760 to 3700 m (2500-12,130 feet). This hydromorphic-rooted vegetation occurs in shallow water to 1 m deep. Stands occur in saturated or inundated sites such as swales and wet meadows and marshes, shallow ponds and near the shoreline of deeper ponds and lakes. Sites are generally permanently flooded but can be semipermanently flooded areas that lack standing water towards the end of the growing season. If the stand has dried, then bare soil and small rocks are exposed. The ponds are often located in mountain parks or meadows and are the result of stream oxbows or glacial basins in broad valleys. Soils are typically very poorly drained muck or peat and can contain embedded cobbles or rocks. Stands grow equally well on either gravelly or muddy bottoms. One soil in Colorado was classified as a Cryosaprist (Komarkova 1986). In Oregon, soils are Limnic, Hemic, Sapric, or Fibric Histisols with organic layer 35 cm or more deep (Kovalchik 1993). In Idaho, soils classify to Mollisols, Histosols or Entisols (Hall and Hansen 1997). Salinity of water varies with the different parent materials.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 18Jan2005
Element Description Author(s): K.A. Schulz

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Boggs, K. 2000. Classification of community types, successional sequences and landscapes of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-469. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR. March 2000. 244 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2003. Unpublished data. List of Elements and Elcodes converted and entered into Biotics Tracker 4.0. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2015. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [http://www.cnhp.colostate.edu/tracking/communities.html].

  • Christy, J. A. 1993. Classification and catalog of native wetland plant communities in Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 63 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

  • Christy, J. A., and J. A. Putera. 1993. Lower Columbia River Natural Area Inventory, 1992. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 75 pp.

  • Clements, F. E. 1904. Formation and succession herbaria. University of Nebraska, University Studies IV(4):329-355.

  • Cooper, D. J. 1986a. Ecological studies of wetland vegetation, Cross Creek Valley, Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Holy Cross Wilderness Defense Fund, Technical Report No. 2. 24 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Driscoll, R. S., D. L. Merkel, D. L. Radloff, D. E. Snyder, and J. S. Hagihara. 1984. An ecological land classification framework for the United States. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1439. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 56 pp.

  • Fuller, G. D. 1930. A comparison of certain Rocky Mountain grasslands with the prairie of Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 8:121-130.

  • Hall, J. B., and P. L. Hansen. 1997. A preliminary riparian habitat type classification system for the Bureau of Land Management districts in southern and eastern Idaho. Riparian and Wetland Research Program, School of Forestry, University of Montana. Idaho Bureau of Land Management, Technical Bulletin No. 97-11. 381 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2000-2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 63 pp.

  • Keeler-Wolf, T., M. Schindel, S. San, P. Moore, and D. Hickson. 2003a. Classification of the vegetation of Yosemite National Park and surrounding environs in Tuolumne, Mariposa, Madera and Mono counties, California. Unpublished report by NatureServe in cooperation with the California Native Plant Society and California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife and Habitat Data Analysis Branch, Sacramento, CA.

  • Keeler-Wolf, T., P. E. Moore, E. T. Reyes, J. M. Menke, D. N. Johnson, and D. L. Karavidas. 2012. Yosemite National Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/YOSE/NRTR--2012/598. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Komarkova, V. 1986. Habitat types on selected parts of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre national forests. Unpublished final report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO. 270 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • Murray, M. P. 2000. Wetland plant associations of the western hemlock zone in the central coastal and westslope Cascade Mountains. Unpublished report, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland, OR. 82 pp. [http://www.natureserve.org/nhp/us/or/nw_or_wetlands.pdf]

  • Ramaley, F. 1919a. The role of sedges in some Colorado plant communities. American Journal of Botany 6:120-130.

  • Ramaley, F., and W. W. Robbins. 1909. Studies in lake and streamside vegetation. I. Redrock Lake near Ward, Colorado. University of Colorado Studies 6:133-168.

  • Robbins, W. W. 1918. Successions of vegetation in Boulder Park, Colorado. Botanical Gazette 65(6):493-525.

  • Salas, D., J. Stevens, and K. Schulz. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Technical Memorandum No. 8260-05-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 161 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.

  • Sawyer, J. O., and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento. 471 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., and J. A. Christy. 1996a. Vegetation of Big Marsh, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Report to Deschutes National Forest. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Portland.

  • Titus, J. H., and J. A. Christy. 1999. Vegetation of Big Marsh, Deschutes National Forest. Natural Areas Journal. Report to the USDA Forest Service. Unpublished manuscript at ORNHP, Portland. [in press]

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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