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Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - Quercus rubra Forest
Translated Name: American Beech - White Oak - Northern Red Oak Forest
Common Name: Northeastern Atlantic Coastal Beech - Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006377
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association comprises coastal oak-beech forests of the north Atlantic Coast and occurs on dry well-drained, loamy sand of morainal coves. It has a mixed canopy of Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Quercus velutina in varying proportions. Quercus rubra is a common associate, although it never occurs in abundance. Occasional canopy associates that occur with low cover can include Quercus coccinea, Quercus prinus, Acer saccharum, and Betula papyrifera (the latter two species are only occasionally present). There are relatively few shrubs and the herb layer includes tree seedlings, especially of Quercus spp. and Fagus grandifolia, plus Carex swanii, Maianthemum canadense, Eurybia divaricata, Epifagus virginiana, and Maianthemum racemosum. This community is related to oak-beech coastal plain forests of this alliance in southern New Jersey and farther south, but is differentiated from them by the presence of Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera, and Acer saccharum, and by the absence of Liriodendron tulipifera.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association is the northern analog of Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (alba, rubra) - Liriodendron tulipifera / (Ilex opaca) Forest (CEGL006075). This association is differentiated by the presence of Quercus rubra, Acer saccharum, and Betula papyrifera on Long Island, New York; on Cape Cod, the presence of Fagus grandifolia indicates this type. Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest (CEGL006125) is an analogous inland type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Northeastern Mesic Beech - Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006075 Fagus grandifolia - Quercus (alba, rubra) - Liriodendron tulipifera / (Ilex opaca) Forest
CEGL006125 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Massachusetts Coastal Forest/Woodland Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New York Coastal oak-beech forest Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Rhode Island Oak-Pine Forest Broader   Enser 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Beech forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Godfrey, P. J., M. Benedict, and M. Soukup. 1978. A guide to the ecology of Cape Cod National Seashore (Mary 1978 draft). National Park Service Cooperative Research Unit, Institute for Man and Environment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Related Concept Name: CNE Mesic hardwood Forest on acidic bedrock / till
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Mixed Mesophytic Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Greller, A. M. 1977. A classification of mature forests on Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104:376-382.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England oak / pine forest on sandy / gravelly soils
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.475 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dry Oak-Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MA, NY, RIpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: These forests occur along the north Atlantic Coast in Massachusetts, New York, and possibly Rhode Island.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This coastal oak-beech forest has a mixed canopy of Fagus grandifolia, Quercus alba, and Quercus velutina in varying proportions. Quercus rubra is a common associate, although it never occurs in abundance. Occasional canopy associates that occur with low cover can include Quercus coccinea, Quercus prinus, Acer saccharum, and Betula papyrifera. There are relatively few shrubs and the herb layer includes tree seedlings, especially of Quercus spp. and Fagus grandifolia, plus Carex swanii, Maianthemum canadense, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Epifagus virginiana, and Maianthemum racemosum (= Smilacina racemosa).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Fagus grandifolia GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus alba GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus velutina GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fagus grandifolia GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Quercus alba GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Eurybia divaricata GNR Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: These forests occur on dry well-drained, loamy sand of morainal coves.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This is a coastal forest community and, as such, is not influenced directly by maritime processes, although it is moderately influenced by minor salt spray from severe storms. This association grades into other coastal oak forest types as well as beech-maple types.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 30Jul2015
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Godfrey, P. J., M. Benedict, and M. Soukup. 1978. A guide to the ecology of Cape Cod National Seashore (Mary 1978 draft). National Park Service Cooperative Research Unit, Institute for Man and Environment, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

  • Greller, A. M. 1977. A classification of mature forests on Long Island, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 104:376-382.

  • Greller, A. M., R. E. Calhoon, and J. M. Mansky. 1978. Grace Forest: A mixed mesophytic stand on Long Island, New York. Botanical Gazette 139:482-489.

  • Hunt, D. 1997a. Long Island oak forest project: Classification justification. Unpublished materials. New York Natural Heritage Program, Latham, NY.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]


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