NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Lodgepole Pine / Bluejoint Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000138
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is found in the upper montane and subalpine zone of the central and northern Rocky Mountains on cool, seasonally moist sites. Elevations range between 968 and 3050 m (3175-10,000 feet) depending on longitude and aspect. Stands occur in narrow canyons, valley bottoms to lower slopes, small flats and benches with gentle slopes. Soils are seasonally moist either from an impermeable soil horizon that impedes drainage or are subirrigated from nearby riparian areas, but may dry out in late summer. The vegetation is characterized by a Pinus contorta-dominated tree canopy with a grassy understory. The tree canopy is open to moderately dense (30-80% cover), but may be nearly closed and is often solely dominated by Pinus contorta. However, in some stands. Populus tremuloides, Abies lasiocarpa, or Picea engelmannii trees may be present, especially in the subcanopy. Scattered dwarf-, short and tall shrubs are often present, and may form a distinct layer. Common shrubs may include Amelanchier alnifolia, Betula glandulosa, Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Juniperus communis, Ribes spp., Rosa spp., Rubus parviflorus, Salix spp., Spiraea betulifolia, Symphoricarpos albus, Vaccinium cespitosum, Vaccinium membranaceum, or Vaccinium scoparium. The moderately dense to dense (30-90% cover) herbaceous layer is typically dominated by the perennial graminoid Calamagrostis canadensis (>5% cover) and diverse forbs. Wet-site forbs such as Aconitum columbianum, Dodecatheon jeffreyi, and Senecio triangularis are absent or have very low cover. Diagnostic of this association is the dominance of Pinus contorta in the tree canopy with Calamagrostis canadensis dominating the graminoid layer. Moss cover can be quite high (up to 98%).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association was considered seral and included in the Abies lasiocarpa / Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type (Cooper 1975, Pfister et al. 1977, Steele et al. 1981, 1983).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nc - Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Group Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Alliance Sierra Lodgepole Pine - Tall Lodgepole Pine Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL000300 Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Calamagrostis canadensis Swamp Forest
CEGL000574 Populus tremuloides / Calamagrostis canadensis Riparian Forest
CEGL005909 Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa - Populus tremuloides - Conifer / Calamagrostis canadensis Riparian Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis Forest Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Oregon Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia / Calamagrostis canadensis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Abies lasiocarpa / Calamagrostis canadensis - Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.
Related Concept Name: Abies lasiocarpa / Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Cooper, S. V. 1975. Forest habitat types of northwestern Wyoming and contiguous portion of Montana and Idaho. Unpublished dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman. 190 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. F. Arno, and R. C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. General Technical Report INT-34. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Steele, R., S. V. Cooper, D. M. Ondov, D. W. Roberts, and R. D. Pfister. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. General Technical Report INT-144. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 122 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis - Thalictrum occidentale Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Tuhy, J. S. 1981. Stream bottom community classification for the Sawtooth Valley, Idaho. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 230 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Henderson, J. A., S. A. Simon, and S. B. Hartvigsen. 1977. Plant community types and habitat types of the Price District Manti-La Sal National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for Utah State University, Department of Forestry and Outdoor Recreation, Logan.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Mauk, R. L., and J. A. Henderson. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. General Technical Report INT-170. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 89 pp.
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus contorta / Calamagrostis canadensis Ecological Type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus contorta var. latifolia / Calamagrostis canadensis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.833 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Apr1999)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CApotentially occurs, ID, MT, OR, UT, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in subalpine riparian areas in the central and northern Rocky Mountains from the Uinta Mountains to northwestern Montana.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association is characterized by a Pinus contorta-dominated tree canopy with a grassy understory. The evergreen needle-leaved tree canopy is 5-15 m tall. It is open to moderately dense (30-80% cover), but may be nearly closed. The tree canopy is often solely dominated by Pinus contorta, however, in some stands Populus tremuloides, Abies lasiocarpa, or Picea engelmannii trees may be present, especially in the subcanopy. Stands are often relatively young (<150 years old) with evidence of past fire. Scattered dwarf-, short and tall shrubs are often present and may form a distinct layer. Common shrubs may include Dasiphora fruticosa ssp. floribunda, Amelanchier alnifolia, Antennaria microphylla, Betula glandulosa, Juniperus communis, Ribes spp., Rosa spp., Rubus parviflorus, Salix bebbiana, Salix drummondiana, Sorbus scopulina, Spiraea betulifolia, Symphoricarpos albus, Vaccinium cespitosum, Vaccinium membranaceum, or Vaccinium scoparium. The herbaceous layer is moderately dense to dense (30-90% cover) and typically strongly dominated by the perennial graminoid Calamagrostis canadensis (with minimum cover of 5%) and diverse forbs. Common herbaceous species include Angelica arguta, Arnica cordifolia, Eurybia conspicua (= Aster conspicuus), Astragalus miser, Carex rossii, Elymus caninus, Fragaria virginiana, Geum macrophyllum, Lupinus argenteus, Maianthemum stellatum, Poa wheeleri, Solidago simplex var. spathulata (= Solidago spathulata), Trifolium longipes, and Trisetum spicatum. Wet-site forbs such as Aconitum columbianum, Dodecatheon jeffreyi, and Senecio triangularis are absent or have very low cover. Mosses may be very abundant with up to 98% cover on the ground surface.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus contorta G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G5 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is found in the upper montane and subalpine zone of the central and northern Rocky Mountains on cool, seasonally moist sites. Elevations range between 968 and 2985 m (3175-9800 feet) depending on longitude and aspect. Stands occur in narrow canyons, valley bottoms to lower slopes, small flats and benches with gentle slopes. Soils are seasonally moist from high water table or poor soil drainage that is often caused by an impermeable soil horizon that impedes drainage, or the site is subirrigated from nearby riparian areas. Soils generally dry out in late summer. Soil texture is variable (sandy loam to clay) and includes well-developed fine-textured loams with an agile horizon and poorly developed, coarse-textured alluvium. Substrates are derived from quartzite, granite, volcanic, and/or calcareous sedimentary alluvium. Litter dominates ground cover often over 3 cm deep with low cover of rock and bare ground.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association is restricted to seasonally moist but not wet sites. The moist soil conditions are controlled by impermeable soil horizons and/or seasonal seeps or flowing streams. The dominance of Pinus contorta in stands in this association is related to fire history and topo-edaphic conditions (Cooper 1975, Pfister et al. 1977, Steele et al. 1981, Mauk and Henderson 1984, Cooper et al. 1987). Following stand-replacing fires, Pinus contorta will rapidly colonize and develop into dense stands of even-aged trees. Over time, many of these stands can succeed to dominance by other, more shade-tolerant conifer species. Most forests in this alliance are early- to mid-successional forests which developed following fires and are considered seral to Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Calamagrostis canadensis Swamp Forest (CEGL000300) (Cooper 1975, Pfister et al. 1977, Steele et al. 1981, 1983, Tuhy and Jensen 1982), while other stands have a canopy that is dominated by more persistent Pinus contorta that is successfully regenerating, especially on more extreme sites with only scattered Picea engelmannii or Abies lasiocarpa (Henderson et al. 1977).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 06Jul2005
Element Description Author(s): K.A. Schulz and G. Kittel

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Cooper, S. V. 1975. Forest habitat types of northwestern Wyoming and contiguous portion of Montana and Idaho. Unpublished dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman. 190 pp.

  • Cooper, S. V., K. E. Neiman, R. Steele, and D. W. Roberts. 1987. Forest habitat types of northern Idaho: A second approximation. General Technical Report INT-236.USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 135 pp. [reprinted in 1991]

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Girard, M., D. L. Wheeler, and S. B. Mills. 1997. Classification of riparian communities on the Bighorn National Forest. R2-RR-97-02. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Sheridan, WY. 308 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., S. A. Simon, and S. B. Hartvigsen. 1977. Plant community types and habitat types of the Price District Manti-La Sal National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for Utah State University, Department of Forestry and Outdoor Recreation, Logan.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Mauk, R. L., and J. A. Henderson. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. General Technical Report INT-170. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 89 pp.

  • Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. F. Arno, and R. C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. General Technical Report INT-34. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.

  • Steele, R., S. V. Cooper, D. M. Ondov, D. W. Roberts, and R. D. Pfister. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. General Technical Report INT-144. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 122 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., M. Kerr, E. Crowe, and B. Kovalchik. 1998. Riparian zones of eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland.

  • Tuhy, J. S. 1981. Stream bottom community classification for the Sawtooth Valley, Idaho. Unpublished thesis, University of Idaho, Moscow. 230 pp.

  • Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019