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Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana / Morella pensylvanica Woodland
Translated Name: Eastern Red-cedar / Northern Bayberry Woodland
Common Name: Maritime Red-cedar Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006212
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This maritime woodland community dominated by Juniperus virginiana occurs on sand dunes, upper edges of salt marshes, and less commonly on rocky headlands of the northern and mid-Atlantic Coast. The physiognomy of this association is variable, ranging from dense tall-shrub thickets to open woodlands; trees are generally shorter than 4 m. Canopy trees are stunted and salt-pruned. Juniperus virginiana may form pure stands, but more often grows in association with Pinus rigida, Quercus stellata, Prunus serotina, Amelanchier canadensis, Ilex opaca, Celtis occidentalis, or Quercus velutina, which tend to have low percent cover. In the southern portion of the range Pinus taeda, Quercus falcata, Sassafras albidum, Diospyros virginiana, and Quercus phellos can be infrequent canopy associates. A shrub layer may be well-developed where the canopy is more open and include Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica), Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) (at the southern end of the range), Juniperus communis, Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens, Prunus maritima, or Vaccinium corymbosum. Vines can be dense in the shrub layer and extend into the canopy; species include Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Herbs are usually patchily distributed in openings and include many species from the surrounding dune associations among others. They include Opuntia humifusa, Dichanthelium ovale, Schizachyrium scoparium, Deschampsia flexuosa, Cyperus grayi, Polygonella articulata, Hieracium gronovii, Panicum amarum var. amarulum, Solidago sempervirens, Panicum virgatum, Spartina patens, and Lechea intermedia.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group North Atlantic Maritime & Coastal Plain Forest
Alliance Maritime Black Cherry - Red-cedar Scrub Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006399 Prunus serotina - Rhus typhina Scrub Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Maritime Red Cedar Woodland Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Massachusetts Maritime Juniper Woodland/Shrubland Equivalent   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New York Maritime Red Cedar Forest Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana / Morella pensylvanica Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana / Myrica pensylvanica Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Coastal dune woodland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: High red cedar thicket, Red cedar woodland, Red cedar-pine woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Martin, W. E. 1959b. The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecological Monographs 29:1-46.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Dune Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Forest on Dunes: Maritime Red Cedar Forest/Woodland Variant
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Lundgren, J. 2000. Lower New England - Northern Piedmont Ecoregion Forest Classification. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation Science, Boston, MA. 72 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Red Cedar Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Red-cedar Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE Maritime Forest on Dunes/Maritime Juniper Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.264 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dune and Swale
CES203.302 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (18Nov1997)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This maritime woodland community is naturally restricted to major coastal dune systems. An estimated maximum of 30 occurrences exist, ranging in size from less than an acre up to a maximum of 100, with an average size of less than 10 acres. The habitat is threatened by many of the same threats common to coastal dune systems: dune stabilization, commercial and residential development. This community is further threatened even on "protected" lands in some cases by a lack of recognition that this vegetation is a unique community.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DE, MA, MD, NJ, NY, VA
Canadian Province Distribution: QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canadapotentially occurs, United States
Global Range: This association occurs along the northern and mid-Atlantic Coast from Delaware to Massachusetts.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The physiognomy of this association is variable, ranging from dense tall-shrub thickets to open woodlands; trees are generally shorter than 4 m. Canopy trees are stunted and salt-pruned. Juniperus virginiana may form pure stands, but more often grows in association with Pinus rigida, Quercus stellata, Prunus serotina, Amelanchier canadensis, Ilex opaca, Celtis occidentalis, or Quercus velutina, which tend to have low percent cover. In the southern portion of the range Pinus taeda, Quercus falcata, Sassafras albidum, Diospyros virginiana, and Quercus phellos can be infrequent canopy associates. A shrub layer may be well-developed where the canopy is more open and include Morella pensylvanica (= Myrica pensylvanica), Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera) (at the southern end of the range), Juniperus communis, Baccharis halimifolia, Iva frutescens, Prunus maritima, or Vaccinium corymbosum. Vines can be dense in the shrub layer and extend into the canopy; species include Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Herbs are usually patchily distributed in openings and include many species from the surrounding dune associations among others. They include Opuntia humifusa, Dichanthelium ovale, Schizachyrium scoparium, Deschampsia flexuosa, Cyperus grayi, Polygonella articulata, Hieracium gronovii, Panicum amarum var. amarulum, Solidago sempervirens, Panicum virgatum, Spartina patens, and Lechea intermedia.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Juniperus virginiana G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Morella pensylvanica G2 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Opuntia humifusa G2 Succulent shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G2 Liana Short shrub/sapling  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This maritime woodland community occurs on sand dunes, the upper edges of salt marshes, and less commonly on rocky headlands. It is influenced by onshore winds and salt spray, plus infrequent sand deposition and tidal overwash from severe storms.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 26Mar2007
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid, L.A. Sneddon, E. Largay
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Largay, E. F., and L. A. Sneddon. 2010. Vegetation mapping and classification of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Lundgren, J. 2000. Lower New England - Northern Piedmont Ecoregion Forest Classification. The Nature Conservancy, Conservation Science, Boston, MA. 72 pp.

  • Martin, W. E. 1959b. The vegetation of Island Beach State Park, New Jersey. Ecological Monographs 29:1-46.

  • NatureServe. 2009. Vegetation of the E.B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications. NatureServe Central Databases. Arlington, VA. U.S.A. Data current as of 1 December 2009.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.


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