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Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Booth's Willow / Bluejoint Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL001175
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This riparian shrub association is found in the U.S. Rocky Mountains from western Montana south through western Wyoming, central and eastern Idaho, and northeastern Utah, into northern Colorado, and west as far as eastern Oregon and possibly eastern Washington. Stands occur on medium- or fine-textured mineral soils (sometimes with an appreciable volume of rock fragments) with a seasonally high water table, on terraces and gentle slopes. Elevations vary with geographic area from 1469 m (4820 feet) in Montana to over 2745 m (9000 feet) in the Uinta Mountains of Utah. The vegetation consists of a tall-shrub layer dominated by Salix boothii and often containing Salix geyeriana, Salix drummondiana, Salix eastwoodiae, or Salix commutata; often, a low-shrub layer of Lonicera involucrata, Ribes spp., and Salix wolfii; and a thick herbaceous layer in which Calamagrostis canadensis (or, in Montana, Calamagrostis stricta) contributes as much cover as does any other native species. The dominance of Salix boothii in the tall-shrub layer and Calamagrostis canadensis in the herbaceous layer set this association apart from other willow associations.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Needed at some point is a regionwide review of the Rocky Mountain riparian willow shrub types (particularly the relationships of Salix boothii, Salix geyeriana, and Salix drummondiana communities) that reconciles different approaches used in different local classifications.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Western North American Montane Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Western Montane-Subalpine Riparian & Seep Shrubland
Alliance Western Montane Tall Willow Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL001183 Salix boothii / Poa palustris Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Shrubland Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Oregon Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix / Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix / Calamagrostis canadensis Plant Association
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii - Salix commutata / Calamagrostis canadensis Association
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Poa pratensis Community Type, modal phase
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Norton, B. E., J. Tuhy, and S. Jensen. 1981. Riparian community classification for the Grey's River, Wyoming. Unpublished final report prepared by Department of Range Science, Utah State University, Logan for USDA Forest Service, Region 4, Ogden, UT. 188 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix boothii / Mesic Graminoid Shrubland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Community Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Walford, G., G. Jones, W. Fertig, S. Mellman-Brown, and K. Houston. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant community types of the Shoshone National Forest. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-85. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 122 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix geyeriana / Calamagrostis canadensis Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.832 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Riparian Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4Q (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CO, ID, MTpotentially occurs, NV, OR, UT, WApotentially occurs, WY
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This riparian shrub association is found in the U.S. Rocky Mountains from western Montana south through western Wyoming, central and eastern Idaho, and northeastern Utah, into northern Colorado, and west as far as eastern Oregon and possibly eastern Washington.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Idaho Batholith Section
Section Code: M332A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation consists of a tall-shrub layer dominated by Salix boothii and often containing Salix geyeriana, Salix drummondiana, Salix eastwoodiae, or Salix commutata; often, a low-shrub layer of Lonicera involucrata, Ribes spp., and Salix wolfii; and a thick herbaceous layer in which Calamagrostis canadensis (or, in Montana, Calamagrostis stricta) contributes as much cover as does any other native species. The dominance of Salix boothii in the tall-shrub layer and Calamagrostis canadensis in the herbaceous layer set this association apart from other willow associations.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix boothii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Calamagrostis canadensis G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This riparian shrub association is found in the U.S. Rocky Mountains from western Montana south through western Wyoming, central and eastern Idaho, and northeastern Utah, into northern Colorado, and west as far as eastern Oregon and possibly eastern Washington. Stands occur on medium- or fine-textured mineral soils (sometimes with an appreciable volume of rock fragments) with a seasonally high water table, on terraces and gentle slopes. Elevations vary with geographic area from 1469 to 2234 m (4820-7330 feet) in Montana, 1890 to 2290 m (6100-7500 feet) in western Wyoming and eastern Idaho, over 2745 m (9000 feet) in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, 2370 to 2700 m (7900-8900 feet) in northern Colorado, and about 2164 m (7100 feet) in eastern Oregon.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 27Sep2004
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Jones

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Mutz, K. M., and J. Queiroz. 1983. Riparian community classification for the Centennial Mountains and South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-2-0048 by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 168 pp.

  • Mutz, K. M., and R. Graham. 1982. Riparian community type classification-Big Piney Range District, Wyoming. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region under contract 53-84M8-1-974, by Meiiji Resource Consultants, Layton, UT. 88 pp.

  • Norton, B. E., J. Tuhy, and S. Jensen. 1981. Riparian community classification for the Grey's River, Wyoming. Unpublished final report prepared by Department of Range Science, Utah State University, Logan for USDA Forest Service, Region 4, Ogden, UT. 188 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1988b. Riparian community type classification of Utah. Publication R4-ECOL-88-01. USDA Forest Service, Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Peterson, E. B. 2008. International Vegetation Classification alliances and associations occurring in Nevada with proposed additions. Nevada Natural Heritage Program, Carson City, NV. 348 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Tuhy, J. S., and S. Jensen. 1982. Riparian classification for the Upper Salmon and Middle Fork Salmon River drainages, Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region by White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 183 pp.

  • Walford, G., G. Jones, W. Fertig, S. Mellman-Brown, and K. Houston. 2001. Riparian and wetland plant community types of the Shoshone National Forest. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-85. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, CO. 122 pp.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985a. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho-western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 78 pp.


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