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Pinus echinata - Quercus stellata - Quercus marilandica / Andropogon gyrans - Chrysopsis mariana Woodland
Translated Name: Shortleaf Pine - Post Oak - Blackjack Oak / Elliott's Bluestem - Maryland Goldenaster Woodland
Common Name: Piedmont Shortleaf Pine - Oak Mafic Slope Barrens
Unique Identifier: CEGL004447
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes Piedmont woodlands on soils derived from mafic rock (metavolcanics of the Carolina Slate Belt). The canopy is dominated by Quercus stellata, Pinus echinata, Quercus marilandica, and Quercus prinus. Characteristic tree species include Carya alba, Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Diospyros virginiana, Pinus virginiana, Quercus velutina, Fraxinus americana, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Understory and shrub species include Vaccinium arboreum, Viburnum rufidulum, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Ceanothus americanus, Rhus copallinum, Rhus glabra, Vaccinium tenellum, Vaccinium pallidum, and Cornus florida. The diverse herbaceous stratum is dominated by Andropogon gyrans var. gyrans, Clitoria mariana, Dichanthelium depauperatum, and Phaseolus polystachios with Cunila origanoides, Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum (= Aster dumosus var. dumosus), Symphyotrichum patens var. patens (= Aster patens var. patens), Aureolaria pedicularia var. pedicularia, Conyza canadensis, Dichanthelium commutatum, Helianthus schweinitzii, Helianthus divaricatus, Rubus argutus, Salvia lyrata, Scleria triglomerata, Solidago nemoralis var. nemoralis, Solidago odora var. odora, and Sorghastrum nutans, among others. This is a relatively species-rich community type. The exotics Ailanthus altissima, Sorghum halepense and Lonicera japonica may be present.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Piedmont-Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Forest
Alliance Piedmont Post Oak - Shortleaf Pine Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003713 Quercus stellata - Carya carolinae-septentrionalis / Acer leucoderme / Piptochaetium avenaceum - Danthonia spicata Woodland
CEGL003714 Quercus stellata - Quercus marilandica - Carya (carolinae-septentrionalis, glabra) / Schizachyrium scoparium Woodland
CEGL003982 Piedmont Mafic Cliff Sparse Vegetation
CEGL008492 Pinus echinata - (Quercus stellata, Quercus marilandica) / Schizachyrium scoparium - Salvia urticifolia Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Piedmont Basic Glade (Falls Dam Slope Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Basic Piedmont Bluff Glade
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.328 Southern Piedmont Glade and Barrens


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1? (22Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community is associated with exposures of fractured mafic metavolcanics of the Carolina Slate Belt, a rare edaphic situation. It is apparently very rare, only definitely known from the Uwharrie National Forest, though it may also occur in adjacent portions of the North Carolina (and possibly South Carolina) Piedmont. It is vulnerable to logging, development, invasion by exotic plant species, and fire exclusion. The final resolution of its rank and its rarity depends on the determination of its total global range. It is vulnerable to logging, development, invasion by exotic plant species, and fire exclusion. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) populations seem to have undergone rangewide declines in the vigor and extent. Stands of this association are threatened by the effects of continued fire suppression, which would inhibit the reproduction of Pinus echinata and cause the grass-dominated herbaceous layer to deteriorate.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is only definitely known from the Uwharrie National Forest, though it may also occur in adjacent portions of the North Carolina (and possibly South Carolina) Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of stands is dominated by Quercus stellata, Pinus echinata, Quercus marilandica, and Quercus prinus. Characteristic tree species include Carya alba, Carya carolinae-septentrionalis, Diospyros virginiana, Pinus virginiana, Quercus velutina, Fraxinus americana, and Liquidambar styraciflua. Understory and shrub species include Vaccinium arboreum, Viburnum rufidulum, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Ceanothus americanus, Rhus copallinum, Rhus glabra, Vaccinium tenellum, Vaccinium pallidum, and Cornus florida. The diverse herbaceous stratum is dominated by Andropogon gyrans var. gyrans, Clitoria mariana, Dichanthelium depauperatum, and Phaseolus polystachios with Cunila origanoides, Symphyotrichum dumosum var. dumosum (= Aster dumosus var. dumosus), Symphyotrichum patens var. patens (= Aster patens var. patens), Aureolaria pedicularia var. pedicularia, Conyza canadensis, Dichanthelium commutatum, Helianthus schweinitzii, Helianthus divaricatus, Rubus argutus, Salvia lyrata, Scleria triglomerata, Solidago nemoralis var. nemoralis, Solidago odora var. odora, and Sorghastrum nutans, among others.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus marilandica G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus stellata G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus echinata G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Helianthus schweinitzii G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Andropogon gyrans var. gyrans G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Helianthus schweinitzii
  (Schweinitz's Sunflower)
G3 LE: Listed endangered


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association includes Piedmont woodlands on soils derived from mafic rock (metavolcanics of the Carolina Slate Belt). The substrate contains abundant slate fragments, which makes it unstable and inhibits woody plant growth through mechanical downslope movement of slabs and fragments.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet and A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jul1996
Element Description Author(s): R.K. Peet and A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley/M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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