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Fagus grandifolia - Quercus spp. - Acer rubrum - Juglans nigra Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: American Beech - Oak species - Red Maple - Black Walnut Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Beech - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL005014
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada. Stands occur on high terraces of small stream floodplains. Soils are well-drained and at least partially alluvial in origin, flooding only occasionally. The closed, deciduous tree canopy has a mixed set of species, with few dominants. Typical constants include Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra among the more typical upland species, and Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Platanus occidentalis among the more typical bottomland species. Perhaps the more dominant include Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Ulmus americana. The tall shrubs, subcanopy trees, and vine species include Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans. A wide variety of herbaceous species are found.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This type can be difficult to distinguish from upland beech - maple forests or lower terrace floodplain forests. Vegetation will probably need to be linked to physical site characteristics in order to accurately identify the type, including features such as small stream terraces, presence of occasional, though not annual, flooding, and some alluvial material (Anderson 1996). Disturbed sites may often be more dominated by the wetter and more rapidly colonizing floodplain species, such as Acer saccharinum or Populus deltoides (Anderson 1996). A related mesic hardwood floodplain type with dominance of Acer and Carya rather than Fagus is the Acer saccharum - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba Floodplain Forest (CEGL005035). Attribution of Ontario to this type may be stretching this type too far north. Ontario crosswalk may better fit with Acer saccharum - Fraxinus americana / Acer spicatum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006636) and/or Acer saccharum - Tilia americana / Acer pensylvanicum / Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest (CEGL006637). The distribution in central Indiana and western Ohio should be reviewed.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Group Silver Maple - Green Ash - Sycamore Floodplain Forest
Alliance Sugar Maple - Bitternut Hickory Mesic Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002411 Fagus grandifolia - Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera Unglaciated Forest
CEGL002586 Acer saccharinum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana Floodplain Forest
CEGL005015 Fagus grandifolia - Quercus alba - (Quercus michauxii) - Acer rubrum Flatwoods Forest
CEGL005035 Acer saccharum - Carya cordiformis / Asimina triloba Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Indiana Forest - Floodplain Mesic Broader   Homoya et al. 1988
Tennessee Fagus grandifolia - Quercus spp. - Acer rubrum - Juglans nigra Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Mixed Floodplain Forests
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.
Related Concept Name: Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Black Maple Deciduous Forest Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
Related Concept Name: Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Lowland Ash Deciduous Forest Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
Related Concept Name: Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - White Elm Deciduous Forest Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.
Related Concept Name: Moist - Fresh Sugar Maple - Yellow Birch Deciduous Forest Type
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.694 North-Central Interior Floodplain
CES202.705 South-Central Interior Large Floodplain
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (22Jun1998)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: There are probably fewer than 100 occurrences of this community rangewide. Currently 23 occurrences are documented from Indiana (where it is ranked S1) and Ohio (S?). It is also reported from Pennsylvania (S?), and it may occur in Ontario. There are probably fewer than 1000 acres of this community rangewide. Currently 65 acres are documented from 3 occurrences in Indiana. This community is documented from 12 ecoregion subsections.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: IN, KY, OH, PApotentially occurs, TNpotentially occurs, WV
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This beech - hardwoods floodplain forest community is found in the central United States and adjacent Canada, ranging from Tennessee, Kentucky, Indiana and Ontario, east to Maryland and possibly Pennsylvania.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Bluegrass Section
Section Code: 222F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Oak-Hickory Section
Section Code: 222G Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The closed, deciduous tree canopy has a mixed set of species, with few dominants. Typical constants include Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Fagus grandifolia, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus rubra, Tilia americana, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra among the more typical upland species, and Acer negundo, Acer rubrum, Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Platanus occidentalis among the more typical bottomland species. Perhaps the more dominant include Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Platanus occidentalis, and Ulmus americana. The tall shrubs, subcanopy trees, and vine species include Carpinus caroliniana, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, and Toxicodendron radicans (Anderson 1996). A wide variety of mesic to wet-mesic herbaceous species are found, and Anderson (1996) presents a fairly comprehensive list.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is found on high terraces of small stream floodplains. Soils are well-drained to moderately drained and at least partially alluvial in origin, flooding only occasionally (Anderson 1996). This community is most common in small, headwater valleys that flood for durations short enough to allow for persistence of mesic species. Downstream, this type can be found where the natural levee development is high enough to allow mesic species to persist. This type may then be surrounded on the river side by wetter floodplain types, and on the other side by backwater swamps (Anderson 1996).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: These forests experience periodic flooding.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 25Jun1998
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Jan1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C. Reschke

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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