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Eichhornia crassipes Southeast Temperate Ruderal Aquatic Vegetation
Translated Name: Common Water-hyacinth Southeast Temperate Ruderal Aquatic Vegetation
Common Name: Ruderal Water-hyacinth Aquatic Vegetation
Unique Identifier: CEGL007671
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes floating or rooted aquatic vegetation dominated by Eichhornia crassipes; stands are often essentially monospecific. Other species may include Paspalidium geminatum, Lemna spp., Azolla caroliniana, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela polyrrhiza, Salvinia minima (= Salvinia auriculata).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Usually floating but becoming rooted with lowered water table. Not certain if correctly placed here. Reported from South Carolina by C. Aulbach-Smith (pers. comm. 2001). The species does overwinter in South Carolina in numerous counties in the Coastal Plain from Orangeburg County to the coast. Reported from Lake Whitney at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia (in National Park Service correspondence dated 1998); it is not known how persistent it is or will become there.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 5 - Aquatic Vegetation
Subclass 5.B - Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Formation 5.B.2 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Division 5.B.2.Na - North American Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation
Macrogroup North American Temperate Ruderal Aquatic Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Ruderal Aquatic Vegetation
Alliance Ruderal Common Water-hyacinth - Alligator-weed Aquatic Vegetation

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Eichhornietum crassipedis
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Borhidi, A. 1991. Phytogeography and vegetation ecology of Cuba. Akademiai Kiado. Budapest, Hungary. 858 pp. plus color plates and map by A. Borhidi and O. Muniz (1970) inside of back cover.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Samek, V., and M. Moncada. 1971. Comunidades vegetales de las lagunas blancas de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Acad. Cien. Cuba, Ser. Pinar del Rio 27:1-48.
Related Concept Name: Vegetazione dei fiume a lento corso
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ciferri, R. 1936. Studio geobotanico dell'Isola Hispaniola (Antille), R. Universita di Pavia. Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Pavia 8:3-336.
Related Concept Name: Vegetazione delle Isole galleggianti
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ciferri, R. 1936. Studio geobotanico dell'Isola Hispaniola (Antille), R. Universita di Pavia. Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Pavia 8:3-336.
Related Concept Name: Water-hyacinth Mat -- 27.6
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Dansereau, P. 1966. Studies on the vegetation of Puerto Rico. Part I. Description and integration of the plant-communities. University of Puerto Rico, Institute of Caribbean Sciences. Special Publication No. 1. MayagŁez, Puerto Rico. 287 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (13Jan1998)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This vegetation type is dominated by a species native to South America; it is exotic in North America and the Caribbean.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NCpotentially occurs, SC, TX
Global Distribution: Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Lesser Antilles, Mexico, Puerto Rico, United States
Global Range: This association is found in the southeastern United States and adjacent Mexico.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code: 231E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 231F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 232E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Eastern) Section
Section Code: 232G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) Province
Province Code: 255 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blackland Prairies Section
Section Code: 255B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oak Woods and Prairies Section
Section Code: 255C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 255D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Tropical/Subtropical Steppe Division
Province Name: Southwest Plateau and Plains Dry Steppe and Shrub Province
Province Code: 315 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Edwards Plateau Section
Section Code: 315D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Domain Name: Humid Tropical Domain
Division Name: Savanna Division
Province Name: Everglades Province
Province Code: 411 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Everglades Section
Section Code: 411A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Savanna Regime Mountains
Province Name: Puerto Rico Province
Province Code: M411 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Dry-Humid Mountains Section
Section Code: M411A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this association are often essentially monospecific floating or rooted aquatic vegetation dominated by Eichhornia crassipes. Other species may include Paspalidium geminatum, Lemna spp., Azolla caroliniana, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela polyrrhiza, and Salvinia minima (= Salvinia auriculata).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Eichhornia crassipes GNA Aquatic herb Floating aquatic  
 
 
Salvinia minima GNA Aquatic herb Floating aquatic      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These essentially monospecific mats of floating or rooted aquatic vegetation dominated by Eichhornia crassipes are found in disturbed marshes.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Aug1994
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Apr2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. PYNE

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Areces-Mallea, A. E., A. S. Weakley, X. Li, R. G. Sayre, J. D. Parrish, C. V. Tipton, and T. Boucher. 1999. A guide to Caribbean vegetation types: Preliminary classification system and descriptions. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 166 pp.

  • Aulbach-Smith, C. Personal communication. Botanical Services of SC.

  • Borhidi, A. 1991. Phytogeography and vegetation ecology of Cuba. Akademiai Kiado. Budapest, Hungary. 858 pp. plus color plates and map by A. Borhidi and O. Muniz (1970) inside of back cover.

  • Ciferri, R. 1936. Studio geobotanico dell'Isola Hispaniola (Antille), R. Universita di Pavia. Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Pavia 8:3-336.

  • Dansereau, P. 1966. Studies on the vegetation of Puerto Rico. Part I. Description and integration of the plant-communities. University of Puerto Rico, Institute of Caribbean Sciences. Special Publication No. 1. MayagŁez, Puerto Rico. 287 pp.

  • FNA Editorial Committee [Flora of North America Editorial Committee], editors. 2002a. Flora of North America, north of Mexico. Volume 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford University Press, New York. 723 pp.

  • Hillestad, H. O., J. R. Bozeman, A. S. Johnson, C. W. Berisford, and J. I. Richardson. 1975. The ecology of the Cumberland Island National Seashore, Camden County, Georgia. Technical Report Series No. 75-5. Georgia Marine Sciences Center, Skidway Island, GA.

  • NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Central Databases. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Samek, V., and M. Moncada. 1971. Comunidades vegetales de las lagunas blancas de Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Acad. Cien. Cuba, Ser. Pinar del Rio 27:1-48.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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