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Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Overcup Oak - Water Hickory Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Overcup Oak - Water Hickory Bottomland Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007397
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This bottomland forest ranges from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain west to the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain. The canopy is typically dominated by Quercus lyrata and Carya aquatica. It is distinguished from other Quercus lyrata forests of the Gulf region by the absence of Quercus texana. Stands that lack Quercus texana and have either significant amounts of Carya aquatica are covered here [see Similar Associations). Other canopy associates may include Gleditsia aquatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum var. drummondii, Taxodium distichum, Populus deltoides, and Diospyros virginiana. Shrubs include Planera aquatica, Cornus foemina (= Cornus stricta), and Cephalanthus occidentalis. Subcanopy, shrub, herbaceous, and vine density and diversity are directly affected by the timing, duration, and depth of seasonal flooding. Herbaceous growth and diversity will be limited in areas of consistently longer hydroperiod. More detailed information is needed on the floristics and environment of this association.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Distribution of this association was reduced because of its originally wide geographic range. The distribution of this type west of the Mississippi River needs to be revisited. The conceptual portion of this association west of the East Gulf Coastal Plain was excised and merged with Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica - (Quercus texana) / Forestiera acuminata Floodplain Forest (CEGL002423). [See Quercus lyrata - Liquidambar styraciflua / Forestiera acuminata Floodplain Forest (CEGL002424) and Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica - (Quercus texana) / Forestiera acuminata Floodplain Forest (CEGL002423)]. At the Francis Marion National Forest, stands of CEGL007864 (Nyssa biflora) and CEGL007397 (Quercus lyrata) are quite similar in their lower strata (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004). In Virginia, where related vegetation is relatively uncommon and in a restricted geography, it is treated as Taxodium distichum - Nyssa aquatica - Nyssa biflora / Fraxinus caroliniana / Itea virginica Floodplain Forest (CEGL007432).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Overcup Oak Bottomland Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002423 Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica - (Quercus texana) / Forestiera acuminata Floodplain Forest
CEGL002424 Quercus lyrata - Liquidambar styraciflua / Forestiera acuminata Floodplain Forest
CEGL004695 Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Quercus laurifolia - Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica Floodplain Forest
CEGL007864 Nyssa biflora - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Lyonia lucida Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Louisiana Bottomland Hardwood Forest Broader   Smith 1996
North Carolina Brownwater Bottomland Hardwoods (Low Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Tennessee Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
Texas Quercus lyrata - Carya aquatica Forest Equivalent Certain TNHS unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Bottomland Hardwood Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.
Related Concept Name: Brownwater Bottomland Hardwoods (Low Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain Bottomland Hardwoods (Brownwater Subtype)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Overcup oak-water hickory dominance types
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendleton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81/37. Washington, DC.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.066 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.250 Atlantic Coastal Plain Small Brownwater River Floodplain Forest
CES203.489 East Gulf Coastal Plain Large River Floodplain Forest
CES203.490 Mississippi River Bottomland Depression


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (27Feb2004)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Given this type's large range a rank of G4G5 may be appropriate; more information is needed about the number of occurrences and its western distribution.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, FL, GA, KYpotentially occurs, LA, MS, NC, SC, TNpotentially occurs, TX, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This bottomland forest ranges from the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia west to the Mississippi River Alluvial Plain of Louisiana, and Mississippi and possibly Tennessee, Kentucky and Arkansas.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Middle Coastal Plains, Western Section
Section Code: 231E Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands are dominated by Quercus lyrata and Carya aquatica. Other canopy associates may include Gleditsia aquatica, Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum var. drummondii, Taxodium distichum, Populus deltoides, and Diospyros virginiana. Shrubs include Planera aquatica, Cornus foemina (= Cornus stricta), and Cephalanthus occidentalis (Wharton et al. 1982). Herbaceous growth and diversity will be limited in areas of consistently longer hydroperiod (Wharton et al. 1982). A stand assigned here from the Francis Marion National Forest, South Carolina, is dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua with Quercus lyrata, Acer rubrum, Celtis laevigata, Quercus laurifolia, Carya cordiformis, and Ulmus americana in the canopy. The subcanopy contains Ilex decidua in addition to canopy species. Shrubs include Cornus foemina, Ilex decidua, Carpinus caroliniana, and Crataegus marshallii. Prominent herbs include Leersia lenticularis and Phanopyrum gymnocarpon. Other herbs include Boehmeria cylindrica, Dulichium arundinaceum?, Carex grayi, Asclepias perennis, and Polygonum pensylvanicum.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Forests dominated by the nominal species may commonly occur in wet flats and on old levee ridge edges (Wharton et al. 1982). This is a community of Zone III (Wharton et al. 1982).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Subcanopy, shrub, herbaceous, and vine density and diversity are directly affected by the timing, duration, and depth of seasonal flooding. Herbaceous growth and diversity will be limited in areas of consistently longer hydroperiod (Wharton et al. 1982).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D.J. Allard, after Wharton et al. (1982), mod. S. Landaal
Element Description Edition Date: 21Apr2004
Element Description Author(s): D.J. Allard, after Wharton et al. (1982), M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Feb2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C.W. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • LNHP [Louisiana Natural Heritage Program]. 2009. Natural communities of Louisiana. Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, Louisiana Department of Wildlife & Fisheries, Baton Rouge. 46 pp. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/sites/default/files/pdf/page_wildlife/6776-Rare%20Natural%20Communities/LA_NAT_COM.pdf]

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Smith, L. M., compiler. 1996a. Natural plant communities in Louisiana currently recognized by the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. Unpublished document. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program, Baton Rouge. 2 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendleton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81/37. Washington, DC.


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