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Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Switch Cane Wet Shrubland
Common Name: Saturated Canebrake
Unique Identifier: CEGL003843
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association consists of wetlands, including Coastal Plain peat domes, and stream flats and saturated slopes in the Fall-line Sandhills, dominated by Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta, either without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees such as Nyssa biflora, Pinus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera. Herbs and other shrubs may be found in openings in stands, particularly after episodes of fire.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Examples at Fort Benning, Georgia, are small and of limited extent. Pinus serotina (locally at the northern edge of its range) is present in these stands (e.g., Training Area M6).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Nb - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pocosin
Macrogroup Southeastern Coastal Bog & Fen
Group Southeastern Coastal Pocosin & Shrub Bog
Alliance Switch Cane Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004433 Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Shrubland Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
North Carolina Peatland Canebrake Finer Certain Schafale 2012
North Carolina Streamhead Canebrake Finer Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: IIB2c. Peatland Canebrake
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Peatland Canebrake
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.078 Southern Coastal Plain Herbaceous Seep and Bog
CES203.252 Atlantic Coastal Plain Streamhead Seepage Swamp, Pocosin and Baygall
CES203.253 Atlantic Coastal Plain Sandhill Seep
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake
CES203.304 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Nonriverine Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest
CES203.385 East Gulf Coastal Plain Interior Shrub Bog


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (10Oct1997)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This type was formerly very widespread and abundant, sometimes covering areas as large as 10-100 square kilometers. In many places it is now nearly extirpated by fire suppression. Some of the best remaining examples are in Impact Areas at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. This kind of vegetation may have been historical in Louisiana (232Ba, 232Dc) along small bayhead drains; called "reed brakes" by early surveyors.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, FLpotentially occurs, GA, MSpotentially occurs, NC, SCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association has been found, at least historically, in the Coastal Plain from Virginia south possibly to Florida and possibly west to Alabama and Mississippi. It is only historic in several of these states.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Western) Section
Section Code: 232D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Louisiana Coast Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 232E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Florida Coastal Lowlands (Eastern) Section
Section Code: 232G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Lower Mississippi Riverine Forest Province
Province Code: 234 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Mississippi Alluvial Basin Section
Section Code: 234A Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This association is dominated by Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta, either without an overstory, or with widely scattered trees such as Nyssa biflora, Pinus serotina, and Liriodendron tulipifera. Herbs and other shrubs may be found in openings in stands, particularly after episodes of fire. These may include Lyonia lucida, Itea virginica, Ilex coriacea, Smilax laurifolia, Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra, Calopogon tuberosus, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Lycopodiella alopecuroides, Eupatorium rotundifolium, Rhexia virginica, Solidago sp., and Sphagnum sp.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta G1 Graminoid Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra
  (Red-flowered Sweet Pitcherplant)
G4T3T4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands of this vegetation occur in a variety of environments on the Coastal Plain. This includes Coastal Plain peat domes, as well as along-stream flats, or on saturated slopes in the Fall-line Sandhills region and other related environments. At Fort Benning, Georgia (locally at the northern edge of the range of Pinus serotina, and at the western terminus of the Fall-line Sandhills), this vegetation occurs on gentle slopes and in flats; the soils are mapped as Vaucluse sandy loam, 5-8% slopes; Bibb sandy loam, frequently flooded; and Troup, Vaucluse, and Pelion loamy sands, 8-15% slopes. Historically, stands in parts of the range (e.g., Fort Bragg, North Carolina) were very extensive. In other parts of the range, they may have always been smaller in size.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 02Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 10Oct1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeast Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2012. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 12-04. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 36 pp.

  • Mulligan, Maureen. Personal communication. Ecologist, TNC Fort Benning Project, PO Box 52452, Fort Benning, GA 31995.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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