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Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus Ruderal Grassland
Translated Name: Broomsedge Bluestem Ruderal Grassland
Common Name: Broomsedge Old-field Grassland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004044
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association includes herbaceous-dominated vegetation that has been anthropogenically altered and/or maintained, especially on old fields and pastures. Examples support predominately native species or a mixture of native and exotic species, one of the most dominant or characteristic species being Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus. Lolium pratense (= Festuca pratensis) can dominate fields early in the season. This is a very common and wide-ranging association that can be quite variable in terms of species composition. Additional components are other perennial grasses and herbaceous species, most with pioneer or weedy tendencies, the exact composition of which will vary with geography, management history, and habitat.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Phenology can affect apparent composition: in West Virginia, fields visited early in the season had high cover of Lolium pratense, while those sampled later in the season were dominated by Andropogon virginicus.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.B - Temperate & Boreal Grassland & Shrubland
Formation 2.B.2 - Temperate Grassland & Shrubland
Division 2.B.2.Ne - Southeastern North American Grassland & Shrubland
Macrogroup Southeastern Ruderal Grassland & Shrubland
Group Southeastern Ruderal Grassland & Shrubland
Alliance Eastern Ruderal Grassland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004035 Rhus copallinum - Andropogon virginicus Ruderal Grassland
CEGL007707 Schizachyrium scoparium - Andropogon (gyrans, ternarius, virginicus) Grassland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus Ruderal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Illinois Successional Field Equivalent   White and Madany 1978
Oklahoma Andropogon virginicus/Diospyros virginiana - Rhus glabra herbaceous association Undetermined   Hoagland 2000
Tennessee Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus Ruderal Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Old fields
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
Related Concept Name: Successional / Modified Terrestrial Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (08Aug2000)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This is a ruderal community and represents vegetation resulting from succession following anthropogenic disturbance of an area. It is not a conservation priority for its own sake and does not receive a conservation rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, GA, IL, IN, KY, LA, MOpotentially occurs, MS, NC, OK, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community ranges throughout most or all of the southeastern United States, extending north to Virginia and West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Eastern Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 231F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Arkansas Valley Section
Section Code: 231G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Western Gulf Section
Section Code: 232F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Prairie Division
Province Name: Prairie Parkland (Subtropical) Province
Province Code: 255 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Gulf Prairies and Marshes Section
Section Code: 255D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Ozark Broadleaf Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Boston Mountains Section
Section Code: M222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ouachita Mixed Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ouachita Mountains Section
Section Code: M231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this community are dominated by Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus, sometimes codominant with Lolium pratense. Associated species vary with geography and habitat and include typical pioneer species. Species with high cover values in plot samples attributed to this type include Tridens flavus, Setaria parviflora (= Setaria geniculata), Eragrostis spectabilis, and Panicum anceps (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data). On the eastern Highland Rim of Tennessee (Arnold Air Force Base), associated species include Diodia teres, Aristida dichotoma, Aristida oligantha, Packera anonyma (= Senecio anonymus), Paspalum laeve, Lespedeza virginica, and Plantago virginica. Rubus argutus and Smilax spp. may be locally abundant but are not dominant. In clearcuts, Schizachyrium scoparium, Danthonia spicata, and Dichanthelium spp. are also common, as are occasional Quercus spp. and Rubus argutus. The plot at Shiloh National Military Park (western Tennessee) was a mowed field of mostly native species, dominated by Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus. Paspalum setaceum and Tridens flavus were codominant (with less cover). Other herbaceous plants with high cover values were Setaria parviflora (= Setaria geniculata), Diodia teres, Schizachyrium scoparium, and less common were Packera anonyma, Sorghum halepense, and Cyperus retrorsus. At less than 1% cover were Polypremum procumbens, Oxalis stricta, Eragrostis spectabilis, Salvia lyrata, Solanum carolinense, Digitaria sanguinalis, Panicum anceps, Croton willdenowii (= Crotonopsis elliptica), Trifolium pratense, Kummerowia striata, Coreopsis pubescens, Plantago lanceolata, and Mecardonia acuminata. At only a trace amount of cover were Conyza canadensis, Acalypha virginica, Solidago sp., Erigeron annuus, Sida spinosa, Hypericum drummondii, Polygala verticillata, Eupatorium capillifolium, Passiflora incarnata, and Asclepias amplexicaulis. In West Virginia, common associates include Sorghastrum nutans, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Daucus carota, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium pratense, Leucanthemum vulgare, Solidago canadensis, Solidago rugosa, and Solidago nemoralis.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Andropogon virginicus var. virginicus GNA Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This vegetation typically occurs on old fields, pastures, and rocky sites. It will persist indefinitely under a regular mowing regime, e.g., in powerline corridors.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This association may develop temporarily following clear-cutting, and will persist indefinitely under a regular mowing regime, e.g., in powerline corridors and maintained fields. If undisturbed, these grasslands will rapidly succeed to shrubs, and eventually to tree species.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 03Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley, C.W. Nordman and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Aug2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Hoagland, B. 2000. The vegetation of Oklahoma: A classification for landscape mapping and conservation planning. The Southwestern Naturalist 45(4):385-420.

  • Homoya, M. A., J. Aldrich, J. Bacone, L. Casebere, and T. Post. 1988. Indiana natural community classification. Indiana Natural Heritage Program, Indianapolis, IN. Unpublished manuscript.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C. 2004a. Vascular plant community classification for Stones River National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 64 pp. plus appendices and CD.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Penfound, W. T. 1953. Plant communities of Oklahoma lakes. Ecology 34:561-583.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • Schotz, A., H. Summer, and R. White, Jr. 2008. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Little River Canyon National Preserve. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 244 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1998a. An investigation and assessment of the vegetation of Arnold Air Force Base. Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. The Nature Conservancy, Tennessee Field Office, Nashville. 37 pp. plus appendices.

  • Tarr, J., G. Botkin, E. L. Rice, E. Carpenter, and M. Hart. 1980. A broad analysis of fifteen sites in the tall-grass prairie of Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 60:39-42.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2004. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Cowpens National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 126 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Fort Donelson National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 135 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and T. Govus. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Ninety Six National Historic Site. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 146 pp.


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