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Abies amabilis - Tsuga heterophylla / Oplopanax horridus Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Pacific Silver Fir - Western Hemlock / Devil's-club Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000004
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This Pacific silver fir forest of the Pacific Northwest has a canopy that is usually codominated by Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla, with Thuja plicata often codominant as well. Abies amabilis usually dominates tree regeneration and always has at least 10% total cover. Pseudotsuga menziesii is occasionally prominent to codominant. The shrub layer always has at least 5% cover of Oplopanax horridus, which typically dominates or codominates the undergrowth. A variety of other shrubs may be prominent to codominant, especially Vaccinium alaskaense and Rubus spectabilis. A rich herb layer is rather variable in composition but almost always has considerable Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, and/or Athyrium filix-femina. Other frequent herbs are Viola glabella, Clintonia uniflora, Trillium ovatum, and Streptopus lanceolatus var. curvipes. In the Cascade Range and the Olympic Mountains, this association occurs at middle elevations on sites with shallowly subirrigated soils that are poorly drained, usually due to an underlying impermeable layer. Sites are often associated with springs, seeps or small streams. Many natural-origin stands occur on protected lands with few threats from logging and development.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type, the species would include Tsuga heterophylla or Abies amabilis.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Ng - Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group North Pacific Montane Riparian Woodland
Alliance Mountain Hemlock - Pacific Silver Fir Swamp Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridus Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004
Washington Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridus Swamp Forest Equivalent Certain WNHP unpubl. data 2018


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridum - Vaccinium alaskaense
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, R. Lesher, and D. C. Shaw. 1992. Field guide to forested plant associations of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-028-91. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.
Related Concept Name: Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridum
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Brockway, D. G., and C. Topik. 1984. Ecological classification and management characteristics of montane forest land in southwestern Washington. In: J. G. Bockheim, editor. Forest land classification: Experiences, problems, perspectives. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Wisconsin at Madison on March 18-20, 1984.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, R. Lesher, and D. C. Shaw. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-001-88. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 502 pp.
Related Concept Name: Abies amabilis / Oplopanax horridum association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, M. A. Hemstrom, S. E. Greene, and B. G. Smith. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. USDI National Park Service. Scientific Monograph Series 19. Washington, DC. 194 pp.
Related Concept Name: Abies amabilis-Tsuga heterophylla/Oplopanax horridus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Meidinger, D., C. Chappell, C. Cadrin, G. Kittel, C. McCain, K. Boggs, J. Kagan, G. Cushon, A. Banner, and T. DeMeo. 2005. International Vegetation Classification of the Pacific Northwest: International correlation of temperate coastal forest plant associations of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. Contributors: B.C. Ministry of Forests, USDA Forest Service, B.C. Conservation Data Centre, Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center.
Related Concept Name: Abies amabilis-Tsuga heterophylla/Oplopanax horridus Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pacific Silver Fir / Devil's Club Association (CF S3-51) ABAM/OPHO
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Brockway, D. G., C. Topik, M. A. Hemstrom, and W. H. Emmingham. 1983. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Technical Report R6-Ecol-130a-1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 122 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pacific silver fir / devil's-club (ABAM/OPHO)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hemstrom, M. A., W. H. Emmingham, N. M. Halverson, S. E. Logan, and C. Topik. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette national forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 104 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.097 North Pacific Mesic Western Hemlock-Silver Fir Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Cascades Section
Section Code: M242B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Abies amabilis G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Thuja plicata G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Tsuga heterophylla G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Oplopanax horridus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Crawford et al. (2009)
Element Description Edition Date: 10May2016
Element Description Author(s): Crawford et al. (2009)

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Brockway, D. G., C. Topik, M. A. Hemstrom, and W. H. Emmingham. 1983. Plant association and management guide for the Pacific silver fir zone, Gifford Pinchot National Forest. Technical Report R6-Ecol-130a-1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 122 pp.

  • Brockway, D. G., and C. Topik. 1984. Ecological classification and management characteristics of montane forest land in southwestern Washington. In: J. G. Bockheim, editor. Forest land classification: Experiences, problems, perspectives. Proceedings of a symposium held at the University of Wisconsin at Madison on March 18-20, 1984.

  • Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F. 1966. Vegetation and soils in the subalpine forests of the southern Washington Cascade Range. Ph.D. dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman. 132 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, M. A. Hemstrom, S. E. Greene, and B. G. Smith. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. USDI National Park Service. Scientific Monograph Series 19. Washington, DC. 194 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, M. A. Hemstrom, and S. Greene. 1979. Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainier National Park. Unpublished report prepared for the USDI National Park Service.

  • Hemstrom, M. A., S. E. Logan, and W. Pavlat. 1987. Plant association and management guide, Willamette National Forest. Report R6-Ecol 257-B-86. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 312 pp.

  • Hemstrom, M. A., W. H. Emmingham, N. M. Halverson, S. E. Logan, and C. Topik. 1982. Plant association and management guide for the pacific silver fir zone, Mt. Hood and Willamette national forests. R6-Ecol 100-1982a. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 104 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, R. Lesher, and D. C. Shaw. 1989. Forested plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. R6-ECOL-TP-001-88. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 502 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, R. Lesher, and D. C. Shaw. 1992. Field guide to forested plant associations of the Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Technical Paper R6-ECOL-TP-028-91. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, and R. Lesher. 1985. Preliminary plant associations and habitat types of the Mt. Baker Ranger District, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Unpublished report for USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 74 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., D. A. Peter, and R. Lesher. 1986. Preliminary plant associations of the Olympic National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 136 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., and D. Peter. 1981. Preliminary plant associations and habitat types of the Green and Cedar River drainages. North Bend District, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service. 48 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., and D. Peter. 1982. Preliminary plant associations and habitat types of the Snoqualmie and adjacent Skykomish River drainages, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 87 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., and D. Peter. 1983. Preliminary plant associations and habitat types of the Skykomish Ranger District, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 67 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A., and D. Peter. 1984. Preliminary plant associations and habitat types of the Darrington Ranger District, Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 69 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Meidinger, D., C. Chappell, C. Cadrin, G. Kittel, C. McCain, K. Boggs, J. Kagan, G. Cushon, A. Banner, and T. DeMeo. 2005. International Vegetation Classification of the Pacific Northwest: International correlation of temperate coastal forest plant associations of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. Contributors: B.C. Ministry of Forests, USDA Forest Service, B.C. Conservation Data Centre, Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Williams, C. K., and B. G. Smith. 1990. Forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Unpublished draft prepared by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 217 pp.


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