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Carex torta Riverbed Vegetation
Translated Name: Twisted Sedge Riverbed Vegetation
Common Name: Rocky Bar and Shore (Twisted Sedge Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004103
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association accommodates herbaceous alluvial wetlands in which Carex torta is a dominant or characteristic species. It occupies sand, gravel, and rock bars along small rivers and streams in valleys and gorges in the Southern Appalachians, ranging west into the Cumberland Plateau and the Interior Low Plateau, and north into the Central Appalachians, Allegheny Mountains, and Piedmont. This association is characterized by light-requiring, tough-rooted herbaceous perennials tolerant of frequent inundation and flood-scouring. Carex torta often forms dense, extensive colonies. Associated species vary with geography but can include Polygonum sagittatum, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Solidago rugosa ssp. aspera, Juncus effusus, Equisetum arvense, Onoclea sensibilis, Vernonia noveboracensis, Lycopus virginicus, Lobelia cardinalis, Symphyotrichum dumosum (= Aster dumosus), Lycopus virginicus, Osmunda regalis, Hypericum mutilum, Eupatorium fistulosum, Solidago patula, Boehmeria cylindrica, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Acalypha rhomboidea, Hypericum mutilum, Impatiens capensis, Leersia oryzoides, and Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (= Aster lateriflorus). Physiognomy of this type varies from strictly herbaceous to wooded herbaceous to shrubby. Scattered shrubs and small, battered specimens of Platanus occidentalis, Betula nigra, Cornus amomum, Alnus serrulata, and Carpinus caroliniana are present in some stands. An overhanging canopy may include Platanus occidentalis, Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis, or Acer rubrum. Overhanging shrubs often include Rhododendron maximum. Stands in disturbed landscapes may be heavily invaded by Microstegium vimineum, Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum, and other weedy exotics.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Riverine Wetland Vegetation
Alliance Twisted Sedge Riverbed

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004031 Platanus occidentalis / Dichanthelium clandestinum - Festuca subverticillata Floodplain Forest
CEGL006536 Carex torta - Apocynum cannabinum - Cyperus spp. Riverbed Vegetation



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Carex torta Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Delaware Rocky Bar and Shore (Twisted Sedge Type) Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
North Carolina Rocky Bar and Shore (Twisted Sedge Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
Pennsylvania Twisted Sedge (Carex torta) Stream Margin Equivalent   Zimmerman et al. 2012
Tennessee Carex torta Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data
West Virginia Carex torta riverscour prairie Equivalent Certain Byers et al. 2007


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Carex torta Association
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Carex torta Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex torta riparian herbaceous vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Depositional Bars and Shore
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: IIE3a. Riverside Shoal and Stream Bar Complex
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Riverine Upper and Lower Perennial Beach/Bar, Cobble/Gravel, Seasonally Flooded (R2and3BB1C)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
Related Concept Name: Riverine Upper and Lower Perennial Beach/Bar, Sand, Seasonally Flooded (R2and3BB2C)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rocky Bar / Shore
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rocky Bar and Shore
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rocky Bar and Shore (Twisted Sedge Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Sand and Mud Bar
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sedge - spotted joe pye weed riverine herbaceous vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Perles, S., G. Podniesinski, and J. Wagner. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg. 128 pp.
Related Concept Name: Torturous sedge gravel rivershore
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.036 Cumberland Riverscour
CES202.323 Southern Piedmont Small Floodplain and Riparian Forest
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian
CES202.705 South-Central Interior Large Floodplain
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (21Jan2000)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community is found as small-patch linear occurrences along waterways in the Southern Appalachians, west into the Cumberland Plateau and the Interior Low Plateau, and north into the Central Appalachians, Allegheny Mountains, and Piedmont. Although this community has a moderately large geographic range, it is uncommon within its range and occurrences are small. This community is more common than the number of documented occurrences would suggest, since it is often overlooked in inventories.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, DE, GA, KY, MD, NC, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is found as small-patch linear occurrences along waterways in the Southern Appalachians, west into the Cumberland Plateau and the Interior Low Plateau, and north into the Central Appalachians, Allegheny Mountains, and Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Vegetation is characterized by light-demanding, tough-rooted herbaceous perennials tolerant of frequent inundation and flood-scouring. Carex torta is usually the dominant species and typically forms dense, extensive colonies. Associated species vary with geography. Polygonum sagittatum, Solidago rugosa, and Dichanthelium clandestinum are typical; others include Acalypha rhomboidea, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Boehmeria cylindrica, Equisetum arvense, Eupatorium fistulosum, Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia, Juncus effusus, Hypericum mutilum, Hypericum perforatum, Impatiens capensis, Leersia oryzoides, Lobelia cardinalis, Lycopus virginicus, Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda regalis, Prunella vulgaris, Solidago patula, Symphyotrichum dumosum (= Aster dumosus), Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (= Aster lateriflorus), Symphyotrichum prenanthoides, Thalictrum spp., Trautvetteria caroliniensis var. caroliniensis, Verbesina alternifolia, and Vernonia noveboracensis. Cover by nonvascular plants is insignificant. Physiognomy of this type varies from strictly herbaceous to wooded herbaceous to shrubby. Scattered shrubs and small, battered specimens of Platanus occidentalis, Betula nigra, Cornus amomum, Alnus serrulata, and Carpinus caroliniana are present in some stands. An overhanging canopy with an average cover of 20% may include Platanus occidentalis, Betula alleghaniensis var. alleghaniensis, or Acer rubrum. Sparse overhanging shrubs often include Rhododendron maximum. Stands in disturbed landscapes may be heavily invaded by Microstegium vimineum, Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum, and other weedy exotics. Mean species richness of vascular plants in six West Virginia plots was 36 taxa per 400 square meters, with most of the diversity in the herbaceous stratum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Persicaria sagittata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago rugosa G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex torta G3 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occupies boulder and gravel bars on the frequently flooded, active channel shelves of high-gradient streams and small rivers, often forming small, discontinuous, linear patches. It is subject to frequent, high-energy inundation and flood-scouring, which can occur at any time of year. Flooding duration is probably similar to that documented along Passage Creek in Shenandoah County, Virginia, by Hupp (1982). In that drainage, the channel shelf was inundated approximately 15% of the time. Elevations in West Virginia range from 390-1200 m. Soils are moderately to poorly drained sand with pH averaging 6.5 (n=5). Organic soils are not present. Soil chemistry is characterized by high Cu, Mn; moderate B, Ca, Mg; and low Al, ENR, Fe, H, K, Na, P, S, TEC, Zn, and organic matter (n=3).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Periodic large or severe floods transport and deposit large numbers of cobbles, stones, and even boulders in characteristic bars both within the channel (islands) and along its edges (streambanks). These bars provide a matrix for deposition of finer alluvium and habitats for the establishment of tough, adaptable herbaceous plants, which in turn stabilize the bars with massive networks of perennial rootstocks. Regular flood-scouring batters or removes woody plants which take root in these habitats, maintaining open-canopy conditions. These habitats are highly dynamic, with conditions more or less constantly shifting in response to an irregular but powerful disturbance regime. While some of the bar habitats may be damaged or removed by severe floods, others may accrete or be newly deposited during the same events (Hupp 1982). Successionally, this unit can be considered a pioneering type on new, coarse alluvial land, but it is also more or less permanently maintained by natural disturbances.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 18Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming, P. Coulling, S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Hupp, C. R. 1982. Stream-grade variation and riparian forest ecology along Passage Creek, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109:488-499.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • PNHP [Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program]. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-98337501. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry, Ecological Services Section, Harrisburg, PA.

  • Palmer-Ball, B., Jr., J. J. N. Campbell, M. E. Medley, D. T. Towles, J. R. MacGregor, and R. R. Cicerello. 1988. Cooperative inventory of endangered, threatened, sensitive and rare species, Daniel Boone National Forest, Somerset Ranger District. USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Berea, KY. 244 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Perles, S., G. Podniesinski, and J. Wagner. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Harrisburg. 128 pp.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011p. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Twisted Sedge (Carex torta) Stream Margin Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30021] (accessed February 16, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]

  • Zimmerman, E., and G. Podniesinski. 2008. Classification, assessment and protection of floodplain wetlands of the Ohio Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-973081-01-0. Report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Office of Conservation Science. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA.


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