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Pinus strobus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) - Fagus grandifolia Forest
Translated Name: Eastern White Pine - (Northern Red Oak, Black Oak) - American Beech Forest
Common Name: Northeastern White Pine - Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006293
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This mixed white pine - oak forest of the northeastern U.S. occurs on dry-mesic to mesic, acidic, nutrient-poor, sandy loam to sandy soils. In the northern glaciated portion of the range, the forest occurs on outwash plains or moraines, as well as along mid and lower slopes and within protected ravines, and on protected ridges or upper slopes of shale, sandstone or other sedimentary rock, occasionally underlain by metamorphic or igneous rock. Along the unglaciated plateau, this community occurs on rolling topography underlain by sandstone. It occurs at elevations below 915 m (3000 feet) throughout the range. The tree canopy is dominated by a mixture of Pinus strobus and oaks, including Quercus velutina, Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus (usually in minor amounts), and Quercus coccinea, primarily only in the southern portions of the range. Oak species drop out at the northern extreme of the type's range, leaving only Quercus rubra. Fagus grandifolia is characteristic over much of the range of this type but is absent in some areas. Other less frequent canopy associates may include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya alba, Pinus rigida, Populus tremuloides, Fraxinus americana, Ulmus americana, Tsuga canadensis, and at the northern range limit may include Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. The variable subcanopy may include Hamamelis virginiana or Prunus serotina; other species such as Carpinus caroliniana, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica may be present in the central and southern portions of the range. It has a sparse to well-developed, generally ericaceous shrub layer. The herb layer ranges from sparse to moderately dense cover. In disturbed settings, Rhamnus cathartica may be an abundant shrub. The bryophyte layer is not well-documented. This association is differentiated from mixed oak-pine forests to the south by Fagus grandifolia and the absence of southern-ranging species Liriodendron tulipifera, Galax urceolata, Trillium catesbaei, Halesia tetraptera, and others. The absence of Ilex glabra and the unimportance of Quercus alba differentiate this type from a closely related association of northeastern coastal areas, Pinus strobus - Quercus alba / Ilex glabra Forest (CEGL006382). Earlier successional versions in New England have less dominance by Pinus spp. (usually) and more by Betula spp. and Acer rubrum; these are separated as Quercus rubra - Acer rubrum - Betula spp. - Pinus strobus Ruderal Forest (CEGL006506).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: In the northern part of this type's range, it can be similar to Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra Forest (CEGL006088), which is distinguished by having Tsuga canadensis as the principal canopy conifer. However, examples of both types may have Pinus strobus and Tsuga canadensis present. In the southern part of this type's range, drier expressions overlap conceptually with Pinus strobus - Quercus alba - Quercus montana / Vaccinium stamineum Forest (CEGL008539) to the south, and the overlap between those two needs clarification.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Allegheny Eastern White Pine - White Oak Forest & Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002480 Pinus strobus - (Pinus resinosa) - Quercus rubra Forest
CEGL006088 Tsuga canadensis - Fagus grandifolia - Quercus rubra Forest
CEGL006336 Quercus (alba, rubra, velutina) - Carya spp. / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
CEGL006382 Pinus strobus - Quercus alba / Ilex glabra Forest
CEGL006506 Quercus rubra - Acer rubrum - Betula spp. - Pinus strobus Ruderal Forest
CEGL006633 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum - Fagus grandifolia / Viburnum acerifolium Forest
CEGL006635 Quercus rubra - Acer saccharum / Viburnum acerifolium - Lindera benzoin Forest
CEGL008539 Pinus strobus - Quercus alba - Quercus montana / Vaccinium stamineum Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maine Oak - pine forest Broader   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts White Pine - Oak Forest Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Dry red oak - white pine forest Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New York Appalachian oak-pine forest Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Dry white pine (hemlock) - oak forest Broader Certain Fike 1999
Rhode Island Mixed Oak-Pine Forest Broader   Enser 1999
Vermont White Pine-Red Oak-Black Oak Forest Equivalent   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Eastern White Pine: 21
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE dry central hardwood forest on acidic bedrock or till
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE dry oak/pine forests on acidic bedrock or till
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: SNE mesic oak/pine forest on sandy/gravelly soil
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: White Pine - Northern Red Oak - Red Maple: 20
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: White pine-oak-beech dry forest (large patch to matrix)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.563 Laurentian-Acadian Pine-Hemlock-Hardwood Forest
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (31Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This vegetation occurs as large patches of the matrix forest type and ranges across most northeastern states. Pristine or old-growth examples are few, but in general this forest type has recovered to mid- to late-successional stages following large-scale clearing by European settlers.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in New England south and west to New Jersey and West Virginia. Total acreage for all subsections is approximately 230,000 square km.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The tree canopy is dominated by a mixture of Pinus strobus and oaks, including Quercus velutina, Quercus rubra, Quercus alba, Quercus prinus (usually in minor amounts), and Quercus coccinea, primarily only in the southern portions of the range. Oak species drop out at the northern extreme of the type's range, leaving only Quercus rubra. Fagus grandifolia is characteristic but not always present. Other less frequent canopy associates may include Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Carya alba, Populus tremuloides, Fraxinus americana, Ulmus americana, Tsuga canadensis, and at the northern range limit may include Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. The variable subcanopy may include Hamamelis virginiana or Prunus serotina; other species such as Carpinus caroliniana, Cornus florida, and Nyssa sylvatica may be present in the central and southern portions of the range. The sparse to well-developed, generally ericaceous shrub layer includes Gaylussacia spp. (usually Gaylussacia baccata), Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium spp. (typically Vaccinium pallidum and/or Vaccinium angustifolium), and sometimes Kalmia angustifolia, as well as Rubus spp., Corylus americana, Rhododendron periclymenoides, Gaultheria procumbens, Sassafras albidum, and Viburnum prunifolium. The herb layer ranges from sparse to moderately dense cover, with species including Aralia nudicaulis, Ageratina altissima, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Brachyelytrum erectum, Carex communis, Carex woodii, Carex pensylvanica, Carex lucorum, Carex debilis, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium nudiflorum, Galium latifolium, Gaultheria procumbens, Goodyera pubescens, Hieracium venosum, Houstonia purpurea, Maianthemum racemosum, Maianthemum canadense, Medeola virginiana, Melampyrum lineare, Mitchella repens, Monotropa uniflora, Poa cuspidata, Polygonatum biflorum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Pteridium aquilinum, Trientalis borealis, and/or Viola hastata. In disturbed settings, the exotic Rhamnus cathartica may be an abundant shrub. The bryophyte layer is not well-documented but supports Leucobryum glaucum and Polytrichum commune in occurrences in the northern portion of the range (Acadia National Park).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Fagus grandifolia G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus alba G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus velutina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Larix decidua G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Pinus strobus G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Prunus serotina G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Berberis thunbergii G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Hamamelis virginiana G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhamnus cathartica G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Aralia nudicaulis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Maianthemum canadense G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trientalis borealis G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex pensylvanica G5 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This mixed white pine - oak forest occurs on dry-mesic to mesic, acidic, nutrient-poor, sandy loam to sandy soils along mid and lower slopes, and along the unglaciated plateau on rolling topography underlain by sandstone. In the northern glaciated portion of the range, the forest occurs on outwash plains or moraines, as well as along mid and lower slopes and within protected ravines, and on protected ridges of shale, sandstone, or other sedimentary rock, occasionally underlain by metamorphic or igneous rock. Along the unglaciated plateau, this community occurs on rolling topography underlain by sandstone. It occurs at elevations below 915 m (3000 feet) throughout the range.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 24Aug2006
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, E. Largay and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014b. Vegetation inventory: Saratoga National Historical Park, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/869, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and Cogan Technology, Inc. 2017. Vegetation mapping inventory project: Minute Man National Historical Park, Massachusetts. Natural Resource Report NPS/MIMA/NRR--2017/1450. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Küchler, A. W. 1956. Notes on the vegetation of southeastern Mount Desert Island, Maine. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 38:335-392.

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]

  • Lundgren, J., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the High Allegheny Plateau Ecoregion. Draft revisions to the National Vegetation Classification, March 2000 subset. Natural Heritage Central Databases. The Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA, and The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA. 71 pp. plus tables.

  • Moore, B., and N. Taylor. 1927. An ecological study of the vegetation of Mount Desert Island, Maine. Brooklyn Botanical Garden Memoirs 3:1-151.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Thompson, E., and J. Jenkins. 1992. Summary of field data from Minuteman National Park plant communities study. A report prepared under a contract with the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program for the National Park Service. 39 pp.


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