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Pinus taeda / Saccharum alopecuroidum - Andropogon spp. Ruderal Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine / Silver Plumegrass - Bluestem species Ruderal Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Loblolly Pine Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007109
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association consists of older Pinus taeda stands of the Atlantic and East Gulf coastal plains, adjacent areas of the Talladega Uplands, and the southern Interior Low Plateau. Stands are usually naturally regenerated or successional, and possibly silviculturally managed with frequent fire. They have an open to closed canopy of Pinus taeda, with some growth of saplings such as Liquidambar styraciflua. Other Pinus species may occur in the canopy in some parts of the range (e.g., Pinus echinata, Pinus virginiana). The ground layer approaches 100% coverage and is typically grassy, with Saccharum alopecuroidum, Andropogon virginicus, Andropogon ternarius, Schizachyrium scoparium, Chasmanthium laxum, and other grasses dominant in various mixtures, varying with geography. The ground layer, which may vary in density and diversity, may also contain low shrubs and saplings, as well as forb species characteristic of open habitats such as Ageratina aromatica, Symphyotrichum patens (= Aster patens), Symphyotrichum dumosum (= Aster dumosus), Elephantopus tomentosus, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Chrysopsis mariana, Eupatorium album, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, Euphorbia corollata, Fleischmannia incarnata, Lespedeza spp., Liatris microcephala, Pityopsis graminifolia, Silphium trifoliatum, Tephrosia virginiana, Rubus spp., Desmodium spp., Solidago juncea, and Solidago odora. Some stands may contain shrubs such as Vaccinium pallidum and Vaccinium stamineum, while woody vines such as Toxicodendron radicans and Vitis rotundifolia may be prominent in the low-shrub layer of more mesic stands. The exotics Lespedeza cuneata and Lonicera japonica may also be present to abundant. The canopy closure may be below 60% due to edaphic factors (e.g., sandy soils) or management, but this is classed as a forest type.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Examples occur at Nemours Plantation (Beaufort County, South Carolina).

At Arnold Air Force Base, Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee (where Pinus taeda is not native), plants associated with mature Pinus taeda stands vary with moisture and length since establishment. The understory of these stands usually contains a mixture of native and exotic species. The subcanopy may include Carya alba, Cornus florida, Sassafras albidum, and various native Quercus species (Quercus falcata, Quercus coccinea, Quercus stellata, Quercus marilandica, Quercus velutina). The shrub and herbaceous species present in a given stand vary with moisture and stand age. Stands which did not have oaks removed at establishment will exhibit a greater density of them. Continued natural succession in these stands may lead to a condition in which oaks or other hardwoods codominate in the canopy with Pinus taeda. Mixed oak-pine forests appear to be rare at AAFB, with this vegetation occurring only as transitional areas between oak- and pine-dominated stands.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Loblolly Pine - Tuliptree - Sweetgum Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006040 Pinus taeda - Quercus (falcata, nigra) / Morella cerifera / Vitis rotundifolia Forest
CEGL007110 Pinus taeda / Schizachyrium scoparium - Tephrosia virginiana Ruderal Forest
CEGL008462 Pinus taeda - Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Pinus taeda / Saccharum alopecuroidum - (Andropogon spp.) Successional Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Tennessee Pinus taeda / Saccharum alopecuroidum - (Andropogon spp.) Successional Forest Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Loblolly Pine: 81
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (02Apr2001)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: Stands of this association are naturally regenerated or successional, and possibly silviculturally managed with frequent fire. Examples of this association are not conservation targets in and of themselves, even though they may provide habitat for rare species such as the Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Picoides borealis.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, GA, MSpotentially occurs, NCpotentially occurs, SC, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is possible anywhere within or on the margins of the natural eastern range of Pinus taeda, from the Coastal Plain of Virginia southeast to Mississippi, and in the southern Interior Low Plateau. It is currently documented from Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 231D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this managed pine forest type are dominated by an open to closed canopy of Pinus taeda, with some growth of saplings such as Liquidambar styraciflua in the understory. Other Pinus species may occur in the canopy in some parts of the association's range (e.g., Pinus echinata, Pinus virginiana). Depending on the age of the stand and the management regime, shrubs and vines may be abundant; these are usually early-successional or invasive species such as Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, Rhus copallinum, Prunus serotina, Smilax glauca, Rubus argutus, Toxicodendron radicans, and Vitis rotundifolia. The ground layer is typically dense; in some stands it is composed primarily of native perennial grasses, such as Saccharum alopecuroidum, Andropogon virginicus, Andropogon ternarius, Schizachyrium scoparium, Chasmanthium laxum, and others dominant in various mixtures. In other stands, the ground layer may also contain low shrubs, saplings, and forb species characteristic of open habitats such as Ageratina aromatica, Symphyotrichum patens (= Aster patens), Symphyotrichum dumosum (= Aster dumosus), Elephantopus tomentosus, Chamaecrista fasciculata, Chrysopsis mariana, Eupatorium album, Eupatorium hyssopifolium, Euphorbia corollata, Fleischmannia incarnata, Lespedeza spp., Liatris microcephala, Pityopsis graminifolia, Silphium trifoliatum, Tephrosia virginiana, Rubus spp., Desmodium spp., Solidago juncea, and Solidago odora. The exotics Lespedeza cuneata and Lonicera japonica may also be present to abundant.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus taeda GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Lespedeza cuneata GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rudbeckia heliopsidis GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Andropogon ternarius GNA Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Andropogon virginicus GNA Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Saccharum alopecuroidum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Lonicera japonica GNA Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Rudbeckia heliopsidis
  (Sun-facing Coneflower)
G2  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The canopy closure may be below 60% due to edaphic factors (e.g., sandy soils) or management, but this is classed as a forest type.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Nov1994
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02Apr2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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