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Quercus rubra - Carya ovata - Fraxinus americana / Actaea racemosa - Hydrophyllum virginianum Forest
Translated Name: Northern Red Oak - Shagbark Hickory - White Ash / Black Baneberry - Eastern Waterleaf Forest
Common Name: Central Appalachian Montane Oak - Hickory Forest (Basic Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL008518
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is known from the southern part of the Central Appalachians, extending into the extreme northern portions of the Southern Blue Ridge, Southern Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Mountains. It occurs throughout western Virginia and adjacent eastern West Virginia, forming extensive patches on the Northern Blue Ridge and, somewhat more locally, on the higher ridges of the Ridge and Valley province. Favorable sites are upper slopes and ridge crests with deep, base-rich soils weathered from mafic and calcareous parent material, including metabasalt (greenstone), amphibolite, pyroxene-bearing granulite, charnockite, and actinolite schist. It also occurs on sites underlain by calcareous sandstone, siltstone, metasiltone, phyllite, and felsic granites with mafic clasts. Occurrences span a range of intermediate elevations, from 680-1265 m (2250-4150 feet), with a mean elevation of approximately 1000 m (3280 feet). Slopes are mostly gentle to moderate, averaging about 15. Aspect varies considerably, but a majority of stands are located on sites with southwestern to northwestern or flat exposures. Soils are mostly dark, friable loams and silt loams with variable chemistry, but typically high in calcium, magnesium, and/or manganese. The characteristic expression of this community is that of an oak or oak-hickory forest with an herb layer that resembles that of a rich cove forest. Quercus rubra is the most constant member of the overstory but usually shares dominance with Carya ovalis, Carya ovata, Fraxinus americana or, less frequently, other mesophytic hardwoods such as Tilia americana (both var. americana and var. heterophylla), Quercus alba, Carya cordiformis, Prunus serotina, and Betula lenta. Both Liriodendron tulipifera and Quercus prinus, which are ubiquitous in much of the Central Appalachians, are uncommon to rare in this community type. The subcanopy tends to be strongly dominated by Carya spp. and Fraxinus americana, with Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Acer pensylvanicum, and Ostrya virginiana also important in some stands. The shrub layer is typically sparse. Most stands have a lush and generally diverse herb layer, with total cover often exceeding 80% and strong patch-dominance by leafy, colonial forbs such as Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Collinsonia canadensis, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Laportea canadensis, Impatiens pallida, Thalictrum coriaceum, and Asclepias exaltata. At higher elevations, where the type is transitional to northern red oak forests, Dennstaedtia punctilobula often dominates the herb layer in large clones.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: As currently circumscribed, this association encompasses three community types classified by Fleming and Coulling (2001) based on limited plot data from discrete portions of western Virginia. Subsequently, much more extensive plot data were collected across the area, and the compositional and geographic distinction of these "types" became less clear. Recent analysis of a Virginia statewide dataset of 255 montane oak-hickory plots (Fleming and Patterson 2009b) supported the merger of these types as a single association appropriate at the scale of the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. This unit was represented by 77 plots. It is somewhat variable in composition, but consistent in its environmental affiliations and easily recognizable in the field. To an extent, the original classified units can be recognized as "variants" of this association, varying in the relative abundances of some species, in affiliations with geologic substrates, and in soil type or chemistry. A common characteristic of all variants is relatively high concentrations of soil manganese. Several recent studies of montane forest vegetation (Newell and Peet 1996b, Newell 1997, Coulling and Rawinski 1999) have identified a strong positive relationship between manganese levels and species richness. In this community type, however, abundant manganese may explain the total cover and, in part, the composition of the herb layer, but total herb diversity may be more a function of total base saturation and the abundance of other soil cations. In addition, the abundance of both Carya spp. and Fraxinus americana in these stands is no doubt a reflection of the higher base status of soils supporting this association. An intensive study of forest vegetation in the Southern Appalachians comprising nine landscapes and >1100 plots identified no vegetation type in which either Carya ovalis (included in Carya glabra) or Carya ovata constitutes an important component (Newell 1997). The tendency of Carya spp. to occupy more fertile soils was long ago noted (Guthrie 1820), and the relative paucity of Carya in Central and Southern Blue Ridge forests may reflect the exceptionally high base status of many Central Appalachian soils.

Several stands of this type, particularly those in northern Shenandoah National Park, experienced severe oak mortality following sustained defoliation by gypsy moth and coincident drought in the late 1980s and early 1990s.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004256 Quercus rubra - Fraxinus americana - Acer saccharum / Actaea racemosa - Caulophyllum thalictroides Forest
CEGL007692 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus / Collinsonia canadensis - Podophyllum peltatum Forest
CEGL008506 Quercus rubra - (Quercus alba) / Ilex montana / Dennstaedtia punctilobula - Lysimachia quadrifolia Forest
CEGL008514 Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Carya ovalis / (Cercis canadensis) / Solidago caesia Forest
CEGL008516 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Carex pensylvanica - (Calamagrostis porteri) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis - Fraxinus americana / Circaea lutetiana - Helianthus strumosus Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Coulling, P. P., and T. J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-03, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Collinsonia canadensis - Impatiens pallida Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Viburnum acerifolium / Thelypteris noveboracensis Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Coulling, P. P., and T. J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-03, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovata / Dennstaedtia punctilobula - Eupatorium purpureum - (Stachys subcordata) Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovata / Dennstaedtia punctilobula - Eupatorium purpureum - Stachys subcordata Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Coulling, P. P., and T. J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-03, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovata / Helianthus decapetalus Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Carya ovata / Osmorhiza claytonii - Rudbeckia laciniata Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Coulling, P. P., and T. J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-03, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya (ovata, ovalis) / Ageratina altissima - Cimicifuga racemosa Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Fraxinus americana - Carya (ovata, ovalis) / Actaea racemosa Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus rubra - Quercus alba / Cimicifuga racemosa - Hydrophyllum virginianum Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Montane Mixed Oak / Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Northern Red Oak: 55
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: White Oak - Black Oak - Northern Red Oak: 52
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest
CES202.596 Central and Southern Appalachian Montane Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (22Feb2010)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This vegetation type appears to be largely restricted to base-rich soils on the higher ridges of the Central Appalachians, where it constitutes a large-patch community. Extensive occurrences north of Virginia and West Virginia are unlikely. Sites occupied by this community are highly favorable for timber production, and a substantial percentage of known stands occur on U.S. Forest Service lands subject to harvesting. In addition to logging, threats to this type include oak decline and invasive exotic weeds.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from the southern part of the Central Appalachians in western Virginia and adjacent West Virginia, on upper slopes and ridge crests with deep, base-rich soils weathered from mafic and calcareous parent material. It is a recurring type that forms extensive patches in suitable habitat of the Northern Blue Ridge, and somewhat more locally in the Ridge and Valley province. Outlying occurrences extend into the extreme northern portions of the Southern Blue Ridge, Southern Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Mountains (High Knob Massif) and western Maryland. It is possible this type extends into central Pennsylvania, but low relief almost certainly limits, if not precludes, its distribution north of Virginia and West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The characteristic expression of this community is that of an oak or oak-hickory forest with an herb layer that resembles that of a rich cove forest. Quercus rubra is the most constant member of the overstory but usually shares dominance with Carya ovalis, Carya ovata, Fraxinus americana or, less frequently, other mesophytic hardwoods such as Tilia americana (both var. americana and var. heterophylla), Quercus alba, Carya cordiformis, Prunus serotina, and Betula lenta. Both Liriodendron tulipifera and Quercus prinus, which are ubiquitous in much of the Central Appalachians, are uncommon to rare in this community type. The subcanopy tends to be strongly dominated by Carya spp. and Fraxinus americana, with Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, Acer pensylvanicum, and Ostrya virginiana also important in some stands. The shrub layer is typically sparse. Most stands have a lush and generally diverse herb layer, with total cover often exceeding 80% and strong patch-dominance by leafy, colonial forbs, especially Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Ageratina altissima var. altissima, Hydrophyllum virginianum, Collinsonia canadensis, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Laportea canadensis, Impatiens pallida, Thalictrum coriaceum, and Asclepias exaltata. Dominance patterns in the ground layer vary considerably both within and among stands, and at least 22 herbaceous species are known to attain at least 10% cover in one or more stands of this type. Other characteristic herbs that usually occur at lower cover include Solidago curtisii, Dioscorea quaternata, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Geranium maculatum, Uvularia perfoliata, Monarda clinopodia, Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis, Arisaema triphyllum, Eupatorium purpureum var. purpureum, Stellaria pubera, Festuca subverticillata, Sanguinaria canadensis, Silene stellata, Osmorhiza claytonii, Prenanthes altissima, Trillium grandiflorum, Scrophularia lanceolata, Osmunda claytoniana, Helianthus decapetalus, Stachys nuttallii (= Stachys subcordata), Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Viola pubescens. A noteworthy variant of the type features overwhelming herb-layer dominance by Osmunda claytoniana on sites with slightly concave microtopography that may sustain higher soil moisture. Another distinctive variant occurs at higher elevations (>1128m [3700 feet]) on granitic terrain of the Northern Blue Ridge and occasionally elsewhere, where this type is somewhat transitional to high-elevation forests strongly dominated by Quercus rubra and acidophilic shrubs and herbs. This variant consistently features an open, stunted canopy of gnarled Quercus rubra and Carya ovata over a fern-rich herb layer dominated by Dennstaedtia punctilobula, with the more characteristic nutrient-demanding forbs still present but occurring at lower cover. Mean species richness of 77 plot samples was 57 taxa per 400 square meters.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya ovalis G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Carya ovata G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fraxinus americana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus alba G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Carya cordiformis G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Actaea racemosa G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Ageratina altissima G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Arnoglossum muehlenbergii G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Asclepias exaltata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Caulophyllum thalictroides G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Collinsonia canadensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Euphorbia purpurea G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Heuchera alba G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Heuchera caroliniana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hydrophyllum virginianum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Impatiens pallida G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Laportea canadensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Monarda clinopodia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Panax quinquefolius G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Scutellaria arguta G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Scutellaria saxatilis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Thalictrum coriaceum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Euphorbia purpurea
  (Glade Spurge)
G3  
Heuchera alba
  (White Alumroot)
G2Q  
Heuchera caroliniana
  (Carolina Alumroot)
G3  
Panax quinquefolius
  (American Ginseng)
G3G4  
Plethodon hubrichti
  (Peaks of Otter Salamander)
G2  
Scutellaria arguta
  (Hairy Skullcap)
G1?Q  
Scutellaria saxatilis
  (Rock Skullcap)
G3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association typically occupies convex upper slopes, saddles and broad ridge crests with deep, base-rich soils weathered from mafic and calcareous parent material. On the Blue Ridge, these include metabasalt (greenstone), amphibolite, pyroxene-bearing granulite, charnockite, actinolite schist, and calcareous metasiltstone or phyllite. In the Ridge and Valley province, the most common substrates are calcareous sandstone (of several formations) and calcareous siltstone of the Juniata Formation. The type also occurs less frequently on Blue Ridge sites underlain by felsic granite with mafic clasts. Occurrences span a range of intermediate elevations, from 680-1265 m (2250-4150 feet), but are most common above 820 m (2700 feet); mean elevation of 77 plot samples is approximately 1000 m (3280 feet). Slopes are mostly gentle to moderate, averaging about 15. Aspect varies considerably, but a majority of stands are located on sites with southwestern to northwestern or flat exposures. Overall site moisture potential probably ranges from moderately high to high, and thus sites can generally be considered submesic to mesic. Surface substrate usually consists primarily of leaf litter, with few surface rocks present, although small areas on sharp convexities or in debris-collecting concavities may be notably rocky. Soils are dark, moist, friable loams and silt loams or, less frequently, clay loams. Samples collected from plots are moderately to strongly acidic, with varying base status (calcium concentrations range from 140-4064 ppm) but more uniformly high manganese levels (mean = 159 ppm, max = 511 ppm).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: All stands have likely experienced a long history of disturbance, including the loss of Castanea dentata as an overstory constituent in the early 20th century, logging, occasional low-intensity fires, and wind and ice storms. Many occurrences also experienced moderate to severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) during the last several decades. Severe wind and ice storms are common disturbances at higher elevations and more exposed locations, resulting in stunted and gnarled tree stature. Several stands of this type, particularly those in northern Shenandoah National Park, experienced severe oak mortality following sustained defoliation by gypsy moth and coincident drought in the late 1980s and early 1990s; these have regenerated in even-aged stands of Fraxinus americana or combinations of Fraxinus americana and Carya spp. Like most eastern oak forests, stands of this community type tend to have poor or marginal oak recruitment, and many have been invaded by shade-tolerant mesophytes such as Acer saccharum, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana following decades of fire exclusion. However, such mesophytic trees are absent from the understories of some stands where younger tree recruitment is overwhelmingly composed of Carya spp. Because of the deep, fertile soils occupied by this community, invasive exotics (especially Alliaria petiolata) have become well-established at some sites.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P.P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 23Dec2011
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P.P. Coulling
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coulling, P. P., and T. J. Rawinski. 1999. Classification of vegetation and ecological land units of the Piney River and Mt. Pleasant area, Pedlar Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson National Forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 99-03, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Guthrie, W. 1820. A universal geography; or, a view of the present state of the known world. Benjamin Warner, Philadelphia.

  • Newell, C. L. 1997. Local and regional variation in the vegetation of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1008 pp.

  • Newell, C. L., and R. K. Peet. 1996b. Plant species richness of Southern Appalachian forests. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 77 (suppl.):324 (Abstract).

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2006. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report (v.1.1). Research technical report prepared for USDI, National Park Service. USGS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. 92 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2007a. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report, volume 1.1. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 103 pp. plus appendices and GIS products.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


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NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016