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Pinus taeda - Quercus (alba, falcata, stellata) Successional Coastal Plain Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - (White Oak, Southern Red Oak, Post Oak) Successional Coastal Plain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004766
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This successional loblolly pine - oak forest of the Maryland and Virginia Coastal Plain occurs on coarse-textured, shallow dry soils. Abandoned loblolly pine plantations or early-successional loblolly pine forests established following cessation of agriculture often succeed to this vegetation as oaks are recruited and form variable proportions of the canopy. The canopy is dominated by Pinus taeda with varying amounts of Quercus alba, Quercus falcata, Quercus velutina, and Quercus stellata. Liquidambar styraciflua may be present but not generally in quantity. The shrub layer is of variable closure and is often characterized by Ilex opaca var. opaca, Morella cerifera, or Persea palustris. Vines such as Smilax rotundifolia, Vitis rotundifolia, and Toxicodendron radicans can contribute considerable cover in the tree canopy. The herbaceous layer is sparse to non-existent, or is made up of exotic species such as Microstegium vimineum. This association is considered provisional because it has not been well-documented and plot data are limited. This association is somewhat similar to Pinus taeda / Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Vaccinium stamineum Ruderal Forest (CEGL006011), and in fact may be preceded by it in successional sequence, but it has a higher component of hardwoods, especially oaks, in the canopy.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Classification of this type is derived largely from Colonial National Historical Park. More data are needed to describe this type with greater confidence.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Loblolly Pine - Tuliptree - Sweetgum Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006011 Pinus taeda / Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum var. rubrum / Vaccinium stamineum Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Successional / Modified Terrestrial Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (09Feb2015)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, MD, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This type occurs in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and may extend into the adjacent Piedmont.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Pinus taeda is a constant canopy species. Oaks are generally codominant and can include Quercus falcata, Quercus alba, Quercus stellata, or Quercus velutina. Liquidambar styraciflua is a less prevalent associate. The shrub layer is of variable closure and is often characterized by Ilex opaca var. opaca, Morella cerifera, or Persea palustris. Vines such as Smilax rotundifolia, Vitis rotundifolia, and Toxicodendron radicans can contribute considerable cover in the tree canopy. The herbaceous layer is sparse to non-existent, or is made up of exotic species such as Microstegium vimineum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus alba GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus falcata GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus velutina GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus taeda GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ilex opaca var. opaca GNA Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Morella cerifera GNA Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Persea palustris GNA Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Smilax rotundifolia GNA Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans GNA Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vitis rotundifolia GNA Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Microstegium vimineum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on sandy soils on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. It is a mid- to late-successional mixed forest that generally follows plantation abandonment or cessation of agriculture.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.E. Evans and M. Pyne, mod. L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 07Aug2007
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/129. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 369 pp.


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