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Polygonum (hydropiperoides, punctatum) - Leersia spp. Shoreline Wet Meadow
Translated Name: (Swamp Smartweed, Dotted Smartweed) - Cutgrass species Shoreline Wet Meadow
Common Name: Smartweed - Cutgrass Beaver Pond
Unique Identifier: CEGL004290
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association incorporates vegetation of beaver ponds and other semipermanent impoundments in the Piedmont, South Atlantic Coastal Plain, Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain, scattered localities in the Blue Ridge, and possibly other adjacent provinces. Stands of this vegetation are dominated by some combination of Polygonum punctatum, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Leersia lenticularis, Leersia oryzoides, and/or Leersia virginica. Other herbaceous species present include Saururus cernuus, Proserpinaca sp., Bidens aristosa (= Bidens polylepis), and Xanthium strumarium. Scattered individuals of Cephalanthus occidentalis and Acer saccharinum may be present. A Piedmont North Carolina example contains Impatiens capensis, Boehmeria cylindrica, and the exotic Murdannia keisak.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association is documented from a beaver pond in the floodplain of Owl Creek, Shiloh National Battlefield, Tennessee, on Collins silt loam; it is also documented on Bailey Island in the ACE Basin (C. Aulbach-Smith pers. comm.). It has also been seen in the Bankhead National Forest and Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Alabama, and the Oconee National Forest, Georgia.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Alliance Eastern Knotweed Shoreline Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Polygonum (hydropiperoides, punctatum) - Leersia spp. Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
North Carolina Coastal Plain Semipermanent Impoundment (Typic Marsh Subtype) Undetermined Somewhat certain Schafale 2012
North Carolina Piedmont/Mountain Semipermanent Impoundment (Piedmont Marsh Subtype) Intersects Somewhat certain Schafale 2012
Tennessee Polygonum (hydropiperoides, punctatum) - Leersia spp. Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Polygonum (hydropiperoides, punctatum) - Leersia spp. Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Gallyoun, M., G. Meyer, A. Andreu, and W. Slocumb. 1996. Mapping vegetation communities with The Nature Conservancy's vegetation classification system on five small national parks in the southeastern USA. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Conservation Science Department, Chapel Hill, NC.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian
CES203.518 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Pond
CES203.558 East Gulf Coastal Plain Depression Pond
CES203.559 East Gulf Coastal Plain Small Stream and River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (21Dec2000)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This association is found in the Coastal Plain and Interior from Tennessee and Alabama to the Carolinas. The full extent of its distribution is not known. This is not a rare community type, but it is threatened by filling of wetlands.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, GA, KYpotentially occurs, LA, MS, NC, NJ, PA, SC, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in the Coastal Plain, Ridge and Valley, and other interior provinces from Tennessee and Alabama to the Carolinas. The full extent of its distribution is not known.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this vegetation are dominated by some combination of Polygonum punctatum, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Leersia lenticularis, Leersia oryzoides, and/or Leersia virginica. Other herbaceous species which may be present include Polygonum densiflorum, Saururus cernuus, Proserpinaca sp., Sparganium americanum, Typha latifolia, Scirpus cyperinus, Lobelia cardinalis, Onoclea sensibilis, Penthorum sedoides, Boehmeria cylindrica, Sambucus canadensis, Bidens aristosa (= Bidens polylepis), and Xanthium strumarium. Scattered individuals of Cephalanthus occidentalis and Acer saccharinum or other woody plants may be present. Examples which have become dried-out (through drought and/or beaver dam failure) may exhibit greater dominance by Leersia rather than Polygonum. The combination of Polygonum punctatum - Leersia virginica was first noted, but the combination of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Leersia lenticularis has also been observed in the Oconee National Forest. At Ocmulgee National Monument near Macon, Georgia, Leersia oryzoides was the sole dominant at the time of sampling.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Murdannia keisak G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Persicaria hydropiperoides G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Polygonum punctatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Leersia lenticularis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Leersia virginica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association incorporates vegetation of beaver ponds and other semipermanent impoundments.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is highly dynamic, affected by changes in water level related to flooding, beaver activity, beaver abandonment, etc. The dominance of Polygonum spp. may vary depending on hydroperiod. Examples which have become dried-out (through drought and/or beaver dam failure) may exhibit greater dominance by Leersia rather than Polygonum. Conversely, deeper water for sustained periods would promote relatively more Polygonum dominance.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Andreu and M. Tukman
Element Description Edition Date: 18Mar2008
Element Description Author(s): M. Andreu, M. Tukman, H. Summer
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Dec2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Aulbach-Smith, C. Personal communication. Botanical Services of SC.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Gallyoun, M., G. Meyer, A. Andreu, and W. Slocumb. 1996. Mapping vegetation communities with The Nature Conservancy's vegetation classification system on five small national parks in the southeastern USA. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Conservation Science Department, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006b. Vegetation classification and mapping at Friendship Hill National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/041. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 113 pp.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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