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Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra / Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pacific Willow / California Nettle Swamp Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003409
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: According to Christy (2004), the habitat for this association is shrub swamp around shallow lakes and ponds, and along low-gradient streams and river channels in western Oregon and Washington. Stands are usually surrounded by Fraxinus latifolia forest but occur at lower elevations that are too wet for Fraxinus. Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra is the primary tree in this association, with cover averaging 67%. In some stands it may not exceed shrub height. Other shrub species are patchy and include Cornus sericea, Sambucus racemosa, and Salix sitchensis. Because of a history of grazing and proximity to agricultural and urban areas, the herb layer is usually dominated by exotic cultivars of Phalaris arundinacea. Sites with seasonal inundation may have a higher component of native species in the herb layer such as Impatiens capensis, Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis, Bidens frondosa, and Leersia oryzoides. Many sites are associated with shallow ponds and associated mudflat vegetation. Stands are used extensively by beaver, and Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra resprouts vigorously following cropping. Trees appear to senesce after about 40 years and may not readily reproduce if stands are heavily infested with Phalaris arundinacea. Stands are often flooded in winter and historically were sometimes flooded into the growing season, but they need late-season draw-down to survive. Use of water control structures to keep shallow lakes flooded in summer has killed several large stands of Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra in the Portland, Oregon, area, destroying valuable shrub swamp and mudflat habitat.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Ng - Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group North-Central Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest
Alliance Shining Willow Scrub Swamp

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra / Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Salix lasiandra / Urtica dioica community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra / Urtica dioica spp. gracilis Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Copass, C., and T. Ramm-Granberg. 2016a. Ebey?s Landing National Historical Reserve vegetation inventory and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2016/1127. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 194 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra / Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra / Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.869 North Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2 (01Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in western Oregon and Washington (Christy 2004).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Urtica dioica ssp. gracilis G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Phalaris arundinacea G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 10Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): Christy (2004)

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A., and J. A. Putera. 1993. Lower Columbia River Natural Area Inventory, 1992. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 75 pp.

  • Copass, C., and T. Ramm-Granberg. 2016a. Ebey?s Landing National Historical Reserve vegetation inventory and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2016/1127. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 194 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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