NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Red Maple - (Green Ash, White Ash) / Northern Spicebush / Skunk-cabbage Swamp Forest
Common Name: Southern New England-Northern Piedmont Red Maple Seepage Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006406
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association is a seepage swamp dominated by Acer rubrum and ranging from southern New England south to the Piedmont of Virginia. It generally occurs in saturated situations on slightly sloping hillsides, along small streams, or in basins that receive overland flooding in addition to groundwater influence. In general, these swamps are moderately acidic to moderately basic and have some seepage indicators but are not particularly species-rich. Soils are shallow to moderately deep mucks over mineral soils. Acer rubrum dominates the canopy; Fraxinus pennsylvanica or Fraxinus americana are usually also found in the canopy and can be codominant. Fraxinus nigra is not generally associated with this type at the northern portion of the range, and, if present, occurs only as scattered individuals, but this species does occur in this type in Pennsylvania. Other canopy or subcanopy associates may include Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus bicolor, Quercus palustris, Prunus serotina, Fagus grandifolia, Betula lenta, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra. Conifers such as Tsuga canadensis or Pinus strobus are generally absent or occur in very low abundance. The shrub layer may be fairly open to quite dense, depending on the amount of canopy closure. Shrub species commonly include Ilex verticillata, Rhododendron viscosum, Clethra alnifolia, Lindera benzoin, Cornus amomum, Alnus serrulata, and less commonly Vaccinium corymbosum, Lyonia ligustrina, Ilex montana, Toxicodendron vernix, Viburnum dentatum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (= Viburnum cassinoides). The herbaceous layer is variable in cover; Symplocarpus foetidus and Osmunda cinnamomea are nearly always present. In some areas, tall ferns (Osmunda cinnamomea, Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda regalis, Thelypteris palustris, Thelypteris noveboracensis) form an herbaceous canopy within which other species are scattered. Microtopography is generally pronounced, resulting from tip-ups. Tree seedlings and Sphagnum mosses are common on hummocks but do not in general form extensive carpets. Additional nonvascular species can include Plagiomnium cuspidatum (= Mnium cuspidatum) and Calliergon spp. Invasive shrubs and herbs, including Berberis thunbergii, Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, Alliaria petiolata, and Microstegium vimineum, may be abundant.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Classification of this type at the southern end of the range is supported by analysis of a 1250-plot regional dataset compiled for the NCR and Mid-Atlantic national parks vegetation mapping project. In that analysis, this association was represented a group of 18 Maryland and Virginia plots.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian-North Atlantic Coastal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian-Appalachian Acidic Swamp
Alliance Northeastern Red Maple - Green Ash Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006156 Acer rubrum / Rhododendron viscosum - Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
CEGL006220 Acer rubrum / Nemopanthus mucronatus - Vaccinium corymbosum Swamp Forest
CEGL006502 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus nigra - (Tsuga canadensis) / Tiarella cordifolia Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Red maple / Northern spicebush (Acer rubrum / Lindera benzoin) community Equivalent Certain Metzler and Barrett 2006
Delaware Southern New England Red Maple Seepage Swamp Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Massachusetts Red Maple Swamp Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Red Maple - Sensitive Fern Swamp Equivalent   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Forest Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New York Red Maple-Hardwood Swamp Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Red Maple - Mixed Shrub Palustrine Woodland Equivalent   Zimmerman et al. 2012
Rhode Island Red Maple Swamp Broader   Enser 1999
Vermont Red or Silver Maple-Green Ash Swamp Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum / Lindera benzoin community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain - Piedmont Basic Seepage Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain / Piedmont Basic Seepage Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Inland Red Maple Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.
Related Concept Name: Palustrine Broad-leaved Deciduous Forested Wetlands (PFO1)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red Maple - Black-gum Palustrine Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red or Silver Maple-Green Ash Swamp
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Thompson, E. 1996. Natural communities of Vermont uplands and wetland. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Department of Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, Vermont chapter. 34 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.298 Piedmont Seepage Wetland
CES202.604 North-Central Appalachian Acidic Swamp
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian
CES203.070 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Riparian and Floodplain


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (30Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Although this is a small-patch community, its environmental requirements are quite general, and it occurs where acidic groundwater seepage emerges on the headwaters of stream drainages. The range extent crosses several ecoregions and 10 states. The major threat to this community is housing development, with disruption of groundwater source a lesser threat.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DC, DE, IN, MA, MD, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation occurs in southern New England south through the mid-Atlantic states to Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southeastern Great Lakes Section
Section Code: 222J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Acer rubrum dominates the canopy; Fraxinus pennsylvanica or Fraxinus americana are usually also found in the canopy and either can be codominant in the canopy. Fraxinus nigra is not generally associated with this type and, if present, occurs only as scattered individuals. Other canopy or subcanopy associates may include Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus bicolor, Quercus palustris, Prunus serotina, Fagus grandifolia, Betula lenta, Ulmus americana, and Ulmus rubra. Conifers such as Tsuga canadensis or Pinus strobus are generally absent or occur in very low abundance. The shrub layer may be fairly open to quite dense, depending on the amount of canopy closure. Shrub species commonly include Ilex verticillata, Rhododendron viscosum, Clethra alnifolia, Lindera benzoin, Cornus amomum, Alnus serrulata, Carpinus caroliniana, and less commonly Vaccinium corymbosum, Lyonia ligustrina, Ilex montana, Toxicodendron vernix, Viburnum dentatum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (= Viburnum cassinoides). The herbaceous layer is variable in cover; Symplocarpus foetidus and Osmunda cinnamomea are nearly always present. In some areas, tall ferns (Osmunda cinnamomea, Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda regalis, Thelypteris palustris, Thelypteris noveboracensis) form an herbaceous canopy within which other species are scattered. These other herbaceous species include Impatiens capensis, Galium aparine, Geum canadense, Arisaema triphyllum, Carex stricta, Carex gracillima, Carex intumescens, Carex radiata, Carex laevivaginata, Veratrum viride, Boehmeria cylindrica, Chelone glabra, Cardamine pensylvanica, Pilea pumila, and Glyceria spp. At the southern end of the range in Maryland and Virginia, Symplocarpus foetidus is usually greatly dominant (>50% cover) early in the growing season, with Saururus cernuus frequently assuming patch-dominance during the summer. Tree seedlings and Sphagnum mosses are common on hummocks but do not in general form extensive carpets. Additional nonvascular species can include Plagiomnium cuspidatum (= Mnium cuspidatum) and Calliergon spp. Invasive shrubs and herbs, including Berberis thunbergii, Rosa multiflora, Lonicera morrowii, Alliaria petiolata, and Microstegium vimineum, may be abundant.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fraxinus americana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Clethra alnifolia G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Ilex verticillata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Lindera benzoin G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Rhododendron viscosum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Symplocarpus foetidus G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is a seepage swamp dominated by Acer rubrum and ranging from southern New England to Virginia. It generally occurs in saturated soils on slightly sloping hillsides, along small headwater streams, or in depressions at the edges of floodplains that receive overland flooding in addition to groundwater inputs. In general, these swamps are moderately acidic to moderately basic and have some seepage indicators but are not particularly species-rich. Soils are shallow to moderately deep mucks over mineral soils. Microtopography is generally pronounced, resulting from tip-ups and the braided character of the drainage. Soil samples collected from 18 Maryland and Virginia plot samples are "intermediate" in chemistry, i.e., mean pH = 5.2, mean Ca = 1071 ppm, mean Mg = 195 ppm, mean total base saturation = 57%, but are more "basic" than "acidic" in their calcium and magnesium content.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 15Feb2012
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, S.C. Gawler and G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 30Jan2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. FWS/OBS-79/31. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC. 103 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Davis, T. 2011f. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Red Maple - Mixed Shrub Palustrine Woodland Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16048] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gateway National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/107. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 283 pp.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of vegetation at Saratoga National Historical Park. Draft Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service, Northeast Region, Coastal Institute in Kingston, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Enser, R. 1993. Natural community classification for Rhode Island (draft). Rhode Island Natural Heritage Program. Providence, RI.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and B. Agius. 2005. Vegetation mapping at Minute Man National Historical Park. Draft final report. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Hop, K., S. Lubinski, J. Dieck, J. Drake, and S. Menard. 2009. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana. USDI U.S. Geological Survey, La Crosse, WI, and NatureServe, St. Paul, MN. 312 pp.

  • Lea, C., and E. T. Riley. 2005. Relationship of groundwater pH to floristic composition of seepage swamps in the Blue Ridge, Piedmont, and inner Coastal Plain of Maryland, the District of Columbia, and northern Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service, National Capital Region. 9 pp. plus appendices.

  • Metzler, K. J., J. P. Barrett, T. E. Nosal, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/130. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 128 pp.

  • Metzler, K. J., and J. P. Barrett. 2001. Vegetation classification for Connecticut. Draft 5/21/2001. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Center, Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2001b. Soil survey of Gateway National Recreation Area, New York and New Jersey. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service and USDI National Park Service, Gateway National Recreation Area in partnership with Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station and New York City Soil and Water Conservation District.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/125. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2001. Classification of natural communities of Massachusetts. September 2001 draft. Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

  • Thompson, E. 1996. Natural communities of Vermont uplands and wetland. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Department of Fish and Wildlife in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, Vermont chapter. 34 pp.

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2000. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016