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Acer saccharum - Ostrya virginiana - Carya ovata - Quercus rubra Limestone Woodland
Translated Name: Sugar Maple - Hophornbeam - Shagbark Hickory - Northern Red Oak Limestone Woodland
Common Name: Mixed Hardwood Limestone Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL005059
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This sugar maple - mixed hardwood community type is found in western New York and eastern Ontario. Stands occur on exposed limestone bedrock, such as cliff rims and near alvars, where soil is shallow. In alvar areas canopy cover varies from 30-70%, with the mean closer to 60%, and deciduous cover is generally greater than 75%. Canopy dominance is variable, with Acer saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Carya ovata, and Quercus rubra typically present. The shrub layer is sparse. Herbaceous layer is rich, including Waldsteinia fragarioides, Trillium grandiflorum, Toxicodendron radicans, Phlox divaricata, Carex buxbaumii, Carex pensylvanica, and others.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Reschke (1990) describes both this type and Thuja occidentalis Limestone Bedrock Woodland (CEGL005050) as limestone woodland. See also Lee et al. (1998), who list a Sugar Maple-Ironwood-White Ash Treed Carbonate Cliff Woodland Type, which should probably be separated into its own cliff type. Carya ovata / Zanthoxylum americanum / Panicum philadelphicum - Carex pensylvanica Open Woodland (CEGL005230) (described by Reschke et al. 1998, but coded as CEGL005059 in that publication) may be a variant of this type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Mesic Hardwood - Conifer Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian Hardwood Forest
Alliance Sugar Maple Limestone Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005050 Thuja occidentalis Limestone Bedrock Woodland
CEGL005121 Quercus alba - Quercus macrocarpa / Andropogon gerardii Wooded Grassland
CEGL005230 Carya ovata / Zanthoxylum americanum / Panicum philadelphicum - Carex pensylvanica Open Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Limestone woodland Broader   Edinger et al. 2002


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharum - Ostrya virginiana - Carya ovata - Quercus rubra Limestone Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney, and H. Potter, on behalf of the Alvar Working Group. 1998. Conserving Great Lakes Alvars. Final Technical Report of the International Alvar Conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Great Lakes Program, Chicago, IL. 119 pp. plus 4 appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.572 Laurentian-Acadian Calcareous Rocky Outcrop
CES201.721 Great Lakes Alvar


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (24Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This deciduous woodland association is found in the eastern Great Lakes regions of the United States and Canada, where it is found either on shallow soils over relatively flat limestone bedrock (alvars) or on thin-soil cliff-rims. These specialized habitats are of limited extent in the region. Few EOs have been documented for this type, and further review of the rank is needed.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NY
Canadian Province Distribution: ON, QC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This sugar maple - mixed hardwood community type is found in western New York and eastern Ontario.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code: 212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Possible
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: In alvars canopy cover varies from 30-70%, with the mean closer to 60%, and deciduous cover is generally greater than 75%. Elsewhere canopy may vary more widely. Canopy dominance is variable, with Acer saccharum, Ostrya virginiana, Carya ovata, and Quercus rubra typically present. Some woodlands may contain Quercus muehlenbergii. The shrub layer is sparse. Herbaceous layer is rich, including Waldsteinia fragarioides, Trillium grandiflorum, Toxicodendron radicans, Phlox divaricata, Carex buxbaumii, Carex pensylvanica, and others. See Reschke (1990) for further information.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Carya ovata G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ostrya virginiana var. virginiana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Substrate is limestone, with exposed rocky surface. In alvars the type can be found in areas with grikes, where the crevices permit the trees to establish deep roots. Elsewhere the type can occupy cliff-rim positions, as found along escarpments.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 06Aug1998
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • Midwestern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Minneapolis, MN.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Reschke, C., R. Reid, J. Jones, T. Feeney, and H. Potter, on behalf of the Alvar Working Group. 1998. Conserving Great Lakes Alvars. Final Technical Report of the International Alvar Conservation Initiative. The Nature Conservancy, Great Lakes Program, Chicago, IL. 119 pp. plus 4 appendices.


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Data last updated: March 2019