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Salix hookeriana - (Malus fusca) / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Wet Shrubland
Translated Name: Dune Willow - (Oregon Crabapple) / Slough Sedge - American Skunk-cabbage Wet Shrubland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003432
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association occurs along the coast between northern California and southern British Columbia. It is an early- to mid-seral association that occurs on perennially wet mucky soils with high organic content, usually adjacent to lakes and ponds, on old deflation plains, and interspersed with open mire in peatlands. Sites may be flooded seasonally or year-round, but water is usually just below the soil surface in summer. Water levels must be relatively constant to maintain hydrology. The tree layer is sparse in most stands, with a few scattered Alnus rubra, Pinus contorta, or Picea sitchensis growing on low hummocks or around the margin of the wetland. A dense, tangled layer of tall shrubs dominated by Salix hookeriana and/or Malus fusca forms a canopy ranging from 30-95% cover. Spiraea douglasii typically forms a lower shrub layer on wet soils, especially in gaps in the canopy of tall shrubs. Gaultheria shallon and Lonicera involucrata may occur on hummocks. The ground layer is dominated by Carex obnupta and Lysichiton americanus, with expanses of deep muck soil exposed in the most shaded places. Epiphytic mosses and Polypodium glycyrrhiza are abundant in the canopy of tall shrubs. The moss layer contains mostly Eurhynchium praelongum, but one site is habitat for the rare moss Limbella fryei. Sphagnum occurs in this association along the northern coast of Oregon in Clatsop County, and occurs in similar sites farther north. Stands appear to be long-lived, maintained by wet soils and gap succession. The willows sustain frequent crown damage from winter storms and heavy browsing by beavers, followed by vigorous sprouting.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Either Malus fusca or Salix hookeriana are sometimes missing from stands, but the other components are the same, and stands lacking crabapple or willow are considered to be local variants of this association.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nb - Western North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Vancouverian Lowland Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Vancouverian Wet Shrubland
Alliance Pacific Willow - Rose Spirea Wet Shrubland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Salix hookeriana - (Malus fusca) / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Pyrus fusca - Salix hookeriana / Carex obnupta variant
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pyrus fusca / Carex obnupta variant
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix hookeriana - Malus fusca / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Related Concept Name: Salix hookeriana - Malus fusca / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanus Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Hooker Willow - Crabapple / Slough Sedge - Skunk Cabbage Saturated Shrubland (Salix hookeriana - Malus fusca / Carex obnupta - Lysichiton americanum)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.062 North Pacific Coastal Interdunal Wetland
CES204.865 North Pacific Shrub Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (21Oct2002)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: There are probably about 100 occurrences of this association, covering some 500-800 acres rangewide. An estimated 25% of the original area remains. Permanently saturated to flooded conditions are required for this association to persist. Stands occur on mucky soils with high organic content, and their extent diminishes rapidly to the south. Wetland regulations protect most larger occurrences, but enforcement on private lands is not always adequate to protect smaller stands. Eutrophication caused by upland development is a serious threat.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Canadian Province Distribution: BCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canadapotentially occurs, United States
Global Range: This association is occurs along the coast between northern California and southern British Columbia. Stands rarely exceed 10 acres but may be as large as 20-50 acres.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Mediterranean Division
Province Name: California Coastal Steppe, Mixed Forest, and Redwood Forest Province
Province Code: 263 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Northern California Coast Section
Section Code: 263A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Mediterranean Regime Mountains
Province Name: Sierran Steppe - Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M261 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Klamath Mountains Section
Section Code: M261A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The tree layer is sparse in most stands, with a few scattered Alnus rubra, Pinus contorta, or Picea sitchensis growing on low hummocks or around the margin of the wetland. A dense, tangled layer of tall shrubs dominated by Salix hookeriana and/or Malus fusca forms a canopy ranging from 30-95% cover. Spiraea douglasii typically forms a lower shrub layer on wet soils, especially in gaps in the canopy of tall shrubs. Gaultheria shallon and Lonicera involucrata may occur on hummocks. The ground layer is dominated by Carex obnupta and Lysichiton americanus, with expanses of deep muck soil exposed in the most shaded places. Epiphytic mosses and Polypodium glycyrrhiza are abundant in the canopy of tall shrubs. The moss layer contains mostly Eurhynchium praelongum, but one site is habitat for the rare moss Limbella fryei. Sphagnum occurs in this association along the northern coast of Oregon in Clatsop County, and occurs in similar sites farther north.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Malus fusca G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Salix hookeriana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Lysichiton americanus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex obnupta G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Limbella fryei G3 Moss Nonvascular      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Limbella fryei
  (Frye's Limbella Moss)
G1  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This early- to mid-seral association occurs on perennially wet mucky soils with high organic content, usually adjacent to lakes and ponds, on old deflation plains, and interspersed with open mire in peatlands. Sites may be flooded seasonally or year-round, but water is usually just below the soil surface in summer. Water levels must be relatively constant to maintain hydrology.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Stands appear to be long-lived, maintained by wet soils and gap succession. The willows sustain frequent crown damage from winter storms and heavy browsing by beavers, followed by vigorous sprouting.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J.A. Christy
Element Description Edition Date: 21Oct2002
Element Description Author(s): J.A. Christy
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 21Oct2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): J.A. Christy

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Banner, A., J. Pojar, and R. Trowbridge. 1986. Representative wetland types of the northern part of the Pacific Oceanic Wetland Region. Internal report FF85008-PR. British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 45 pp.

  • Boss, T. R. 1983. Vegetation ecology and net primary productivity of selected freshwater wetlands in Oregon. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 236 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 1980. Rediscovery of Sciaromium tricostatum (Sull.) Mitt. (=Limbella tricostata (Sull.) Bartr.) in North America. The Bryologist 83:521-523.

  • Christy, J. A. 1985. Identity and limits of Limbella tricostata (Musci: Amblystegiaceae). M.S. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.

  • Christy, J. A. 2001a. Low-elevation Sphagnum wetlands in western Oregon. Report to Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 90 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

  • Christy, J. A., and J. A. Putera. 1993. Lower Columbia River Natural Area Inventory, 1992. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 75 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., E. M. Nielsen, M. D. Noone, J. C. van Warmerdam, L. K. Wise, G. Kittel, and C. Copass. 2012. Lewis and Clark National Historic Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2012/597. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • Sanville, W. D., H. P. Eilers, T. R. Boss, and T. G. Pfleeger. 1986. Environmental gradients in northwest freshwater wetlands. Environmental Management 10:125-134.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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