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Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Tilia americana var. caroliniana / Ostrya virginiana Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Northern Red Oak - Chestnut Oak - Carolina Basswood / Hophornbeam Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Rocky Mesic Mafic Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004542
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This Piedmont forest often occurs in moderately protected situations on lower slopes of escarpments, on alluvial terraces, in ravine bottoms, or in rocky streambeds, and possibly in other situations in which the surface is very rocky and the substrate is basic. Many occurrences are on mafic rocks. The mixed canopy is dominated by Quercus alba, Carya alba, Tilia americana var. caroliniana, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus prinus, Liquidambar styraciflua and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy is dominated by Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, and Cornus florida. Other common species in the canopy and subcanopy include Acer barbatum, Acer leucoderme, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Platanus occidentalis, Oxydendrum arboreum, Juglans nigra, Prunus serotina var. serotina, Aesculus sylvatica, Quercus phellos, Quercus nigra, Sassafras albidum, and Ulmus alata. Shrubs of this community include Viburnum rufidulum, Calycanthus floridus, Hydrangea arborescens, and Euonymus americanus. Common herbs and vines are Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Asplenium platyneuron var. platyneuron, Galium circaezans, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Polystichum acrostichoides, Prenanthes altissima, Toxicodendron radicans, Desmodium nudiflorum, Dichanthelium spp., Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Elymus virginicus var. virginicus, and Vitis rotundifolia. The exotics Ailanthus altissima, Albizia julibrissin, Lonicera japonica, and Lonicera maackii are common in this forest.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Comparison across a broader range of data is required for an assessment of the distinctiveness of this type and its relationships. A related less mesic type from the same subsection is Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Acer leucoderme / Vitis rotundifolia Forest (CEGL004541).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Piedmont-Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Forest
Alliance Piedmont Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004541 Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Acer leucoderme / Vitis rotundifolia Forest
CEGL007232 Quercus alba - Quercus rubra - Carya (ovata, carolinae-septentrionalis) / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL007237 Quercus rubra - Quercus alba - Carya glabra / Geranium maculatum Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Basic Mesic Forest (Piedmont Subtype)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.342 Southern Piedmont Mesic Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (13Feb2009)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This forest is limited to mafic rock substrates in the Piedmont of North Carolina and possibly South Carolina. One plot attributable to this association was taken from Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area in the Piedmont of Georgia. This type was probably naturally rare but has been further impacted by Piedmont land use, including agricultural and urban conversion, and timber harvest.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC, SCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is restricted in range to the Piedmont of North Carolina and possibly South Carolina. One plot attributable to this type was taken from Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area within the Piedmont of Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The mixed canopy is dominated by Quercus alba, Carya alba, Tilia americana var. caroliniana, Quercus rubra var. rubra, Fraxinus americana, Quercus prinus, Liquidambar styraciflua and Liriodendron tulipifera. The subcanopy is dominated by Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana, and Cornus florida. Other common species in the canopy and subcanopy include Acer barbatum, Acer leucoderme, Acer rubrum var. rubrum, Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Platanus occidentalis, Oxydendrum arboreum, Juglans nigra, Prunus serotina var. serotina, Aesculus sylvatica, Quercus phellos, Quercus nigra, Sassafras albidum, and Ulmus alata. Shrubs of this community include Viburnum rufidulum, Calycanthus floridus, Hydrangea arborescens, and Euonymus americanus. Common herbs and vines are Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Asplenium platyneuron var. platyneuron, Galium circaezans, Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa, Hexastylis arifolia var. arifolia, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Polystichum acrostichoides, Prenanthes altissima, Toxicodendron radicans, Desmodium nudiflorum, Dichanthelium spp., Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Elymus virginicus var. virginicus, and Vitis rotundifolia. The exotics Ailanthus altissima, Albizia julibrissin, Lonicera japonica, and Lonicera maackii are common in this forest. Fagus grandifolia is largely lacking from this oak-dominated forest (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2001).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Ailanthus altissima G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Albizia julibrissin G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Quercus alba G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus prinus G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus rubra G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ostrya virginiana G2 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Lonicera maackii G2 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Lonicera japonica G2 Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This forest often occurs in moderately protected situations on lower slopes of escarpments, on alluvial terraces, in ravine bottoms, or in rocky streambeds, and possibly in other situations in which the surface is very rocky and the substrate is basic. Many occurrences are on mafic rocks. The "type locality" is on a basic, east-facing slope on the Uwharrie River of North Carolina (M. Schafale pers. comm. 2001).


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.K. Peet
Element Description Edition Date: 22Feb2007
Element Description Author(s): Southeastern Ecology Group
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 13Feb2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Schafale, Mike P. Personal communication. Ecologist, North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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