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Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pond Pine / Switch Cane Swamp Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL004433
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This woodland occurs in association with large peat domes in the tidewater region of North Carolina. It is extirpated from Virginia. The canopy is dominated by Pinus serotina, and canopy closure varies from woodland structure to a nearly closed canopy. Historic accounts suggest that these communities were once much more common than now, and formerly had more open canopy [see Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wooded Wet Shrubland (CEGL003851) in Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wet Shrubland Alliance (A0804)].



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This community, or one similar to it, may be present in southern Georgia and in Florida (S. Orzell pers. comm.). Should this be considered the fire-suppressed condition of Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wooded Wet Shrubland (CEGL003851)?


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Evergreen Hardwood - Conifer Swamp
Group Coastal Plain Mixed Evergreen Swamp
Alliance Pond Pine Swamp Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003843 Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wet Shrubland
CEGL003851 Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Wooded Wet Shrubland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Pond Pine Woodland (Canebrake Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
South Carolina Pinus serotina / Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta Woodland Equivalent Certain SCWMRD unpubl. data
South Carolina Pond pine woodland Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Canebrake
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Frost, C. C. 1989. History and status of remnant pocosin, canebrake and white cedar wetlands in Virginia. Unpublished report. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pond Pine Woodland (Canebrake Subtype/Phase)
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.267 Atlantic Coastal Plain Peatland Pocosin and Canebrake


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (31Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This saturated pond pine woodland association is found in a restricted range and specific set of habitat conditions. It occurs only in large peat domes in the tidewater region of eastern North Carolina. It may have once ranged into southeastern Virginia. The canopy closure varies from woodland structure to a nearly closed canopy. Historic accounts suggest that these communities were once much more common than now and formerly had a more open canopy. This community depends on frequent growing-season fires to maintain the cane understory and for the reproduction of Pinus serotina. Pinus serotina-dominated saturated woodlands are susceptible to the effects of fire suppression, hydrologic alteration, or conversion to commercial forest plantations. Remaining examples are highly threatened by land use conversion and alteration of fire regimes. Most of those occurrences which have not been destroyed have been degraded by reduction in the natural fire regime.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NC, SCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This woodland occurs in association with large peat domes in the tidewater region of North Carolina. It once may have ranged into Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community is characterized by a dense stand of Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta occasionally reaching 9-10 m in height with scattered to fairly dense Pinus serotina. Physiognomy and structure vary with time since last burn. In areas that burn every 3 to 5 years the appearance of the community will be that of pure Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta with, perhaps, scattered Pinus serotina (Frost 1989). Cover of pocosin shrubs, such as Ilex glabra, Ilex coriacea, Lyonia lucida, Lyonia ligustrina var. foliosiflora, Cyrilla racemiflora, Zenobia pulverulenta, Magnolia virginiana, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), and Acer rubrum var. trilobum, increase with lack of fire and, with greater than 15 years of fire suppression, these species will overtake the cane.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus serotina G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Rubus hispidus G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Smilax laurifolia G1 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Arundinaria gigantea ssp. tecta G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Vegetation Structure
Stratum Growth Form
Height of Stratum (m)
Cover
Class
%
Min
Cover %
Max
Cover %
Tree canopy Needle-leaved tree
 
 
 
 
Herb (field) Graminoid
 
 
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occurs on shallow organic soils 10-100 cm deep, in areas burned at a frequency of every 3-12 years (Frost 1989). Typically this community is found "around the periphery of deep peat deposits; where peat feathers out onto mineral soil; in peat-filled depressions and sloughs in pine barrens; and on upland flats where drainage is poor enough to permit accumulation of an organic layer thick enough to support the cane rhizome mat" (Frost n.d.). Soils supporting this type are Histosols, especially Terric Medisaprists and shallow Typic Medisaprists, and other soils with histic epipedons such as Umbraquults, Ochraquults and Fluvaquents. It is likely that the soil is saturated throughout most of the winter and spring, and probably dries in the summer and fall. Organic matter depth, fire frequency, and nutrient availability are the primary factors controlling vegetation structure and composition in this community (Frost n.d.).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This pyrophytic wetland community is dependent on the maintenance of the natural hydrologic and fire regime. Stand height, density and species composition vary with organic matter depth, fire frequency and fertility (Frost 1989).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 16Feb2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): Southeast Ecology Group

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2012. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 12-04. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 36 pp.

  • Frost, C. C. 1989. History and status of remnant pocosin, canebrake and white cedar wetlands in Virginia. Unpublished report. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Frost, C. C. No date. Presettlement vegetation of the Albemarle-Pamlico region, North Carolina. Draft of Ph.D. dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Heineke, T. E. 1987. The flora and plant communities of the middle Mississippi River Valley. Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. 653 pp.

  • Hughes, R. H. 1966. Fire ecology of canebrakes. Proceedings of the Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 5:149-158.

  • Meanley, B. 1972. Swamps, river bottoms and canebrakes. Barre Publishing, Barre, MA. 142 pp.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Orzell, S. L. Personal communication. Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Nongame Wildlife Program, Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee.

  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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