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Pinus glabra - Quercus (laurifolia, michauxii) / Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana / Sabal minor Riparian Forest
Translated Name: Spruce Pine - (Laurel Oak, Swamp Chestnut Oak) / American Hornbeam / Dwarf Palmetto Riparian Forest
Common Name: Coastal Plain Spruce Pine - Oak Stream Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007544
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: The closed canopy of this Coastal Plain stream forest is generally dominated by Pinus glabra and Quercus laurifolia and/or Quercus michauxii. Other floodplain oaks, Quercus nigra, Pinus taeda, and/or Liquidambar styraciflua may occur. Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana dominates the well-developed subcanopy stratum. Sabal minor may be common in at least some occurrences of this association. Shrubs may include Hypericum galioides, Hypericum hypericoides, Sebastiania fruticosa, Leucothoe racemosa, Cyrilla racemiflora, Styrax americanus, Crataegus marshallii, Vaccinium spp., and Rhododendron canescens. Vines include Berchemia scandens and Vitis rotundifolia. Herbs may include Chasmanthium laxum, Saccharum baldwinii, Carex joorii, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Mitchella repens. The liverwort Pallavicinia lyellii may be present. This association occurs on natural levees of Coastal Plain streams, both blackwater and brownwater, in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, southern South Carolina, and Florida.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Floodplain Forest
Group Oak - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Coastal Plain Oak - Loblolly Pine Riparian Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Pinus glabra - Quercus (laurifolia, michauxii, nigra) / Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana / Sabal minor Forest Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.
Florida Alluvial Forest Broader   FNAI 1997


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Floodplain Forest, Diamondleaf Oak/Spruce Pine Flat subtype
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992b. Natural community classification. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 16 pp.
Related Concept Name: IIA8c. Lowland Pine - Oak Forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Swamp chestnut oak-cherrybark oak-spruce pine
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendleton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81/37. Washington, DC.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.250 Atlantic Coastal Plain Small Brownwater River Floodplain Forest
CES203.559 East Gulf Coastal Plain Small Stream and River Floodplain Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3G4 (27Mar2003)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This association is thought to be restricted to natural levees of streams, both blackwater and brownwater, in the Coastal Plain of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, southern South Carolina, and Florida.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, FL, GA, MS, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association occurs in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and southern South Carolina.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The closed canopy of this forest is generally dominated by Pinus glabra and Quercus laurifolia and/or Quercus michauxii. Other floodplain oaks, Quercus nigra, Pinus taeda, and/or Liquidambar styraciflua may also occur. Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana dominates the well-developed subcanopy stratum. Sabal minor and/or Arundinaria gigantea may be common in at least some occurrences of this association (FNAI 1992b). Shrubs may include Hypericum galioides, Hypericum hypericoides, Sebastiania fruticosa, Leucothoe racemosa, Cyrilla racemiflora, Styrax americanus, Crataegus marshallii, Vaccinium elliottii, and Rhododendron canescens. Vines include Berchemia scandens and Vitis rotundifolia. Herbs may include Chasmanthium laxum, Saccharum baldwinii, Carex joorii, Osmunda cinnamomea, and Mitchella repens. The liverwort Pallavicinia lyellii may be present.

At Oak Landing, Apalachicola National Forest, canopy dominants are Quercus nigra and Pinus glabra with Quercus virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Betula nigra. Sabal minor, Carpinus caroliniana, and Ilex decidua are the dominant shrubs, with Crataegus marshallii, Vaccinium elliottii, Asimina parviflora, Amorpha fruticosa, and Viburnum dentatum. Vines include Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax bona-nox, Vitis rotundifolia, Bignonia capreolata, and Campsis radicans. The most common herbs are Chasmanthium laxum and Mitchella repens. In the floodplain of the Ochlockonee River near Rock Bluff (Apalachicola National Forest), the canopy was dominated by Pinus glabra, Quercus hemisphaerica, and Quercus nigra, with Liquidambar styraciflua and Quercus virginiana. Ilex decidua, Sebastiania fruticosa, and Chasmanthium latifolium were also important (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data). The exotic Lygodium japonicum may occur in stands of this association.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus michauxii G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus nigra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus laurifolia G3 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus glabra G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana ssp. caroliniana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Sabal minor G3 Palm shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Lygodium japonicum G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs on natural levees of Coastal Plain streams, both blackwater and brownwater, in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and southern South Carolina.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: In Florida (Florida Natural Areas Inventory 1992b) this community is described as an alluvial floodplain flat inundated about 30% of the growing season.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley, mod. C.W. Nordman
Element Description Edition Date: 21May2002
Element Description Author(s): C.W. Nordman
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Mar2003
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992a. Natural communities. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 6 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 1992b. Natural community classification. Unpublished document. The Nature Conservancy, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee. 16 pp.

  • FNAI [Florida Natural Areas Inventory]. 2010a. Guide to the natural communities of Florida: 2010 edition. Florida Natural Areas Inventory, Tallahassee, FL.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Wharton, C. H., W. M. Kitchens, E. C. Pendleton, and T. W. Sipe. 1982. The ecology of bottomland hardwood swamps of the Southeast: A community profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services. FWS/OBS-81/37. Washington, DC.


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