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Acer rubrum var. trilobum / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea - Saururus cernuus - Impatiens capensis Seep Forest
Translated Name: Carolina Red Maple / Possumhaw / Cinnamon Fern - Lizard's-tail - Jewelweed Seep Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Low-Elevation Headwater Seepage Swamp
Unique Identifier: CEGL004426
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This saturated vegetation is found in seepage areas, often on edges of floodplains or in headwaters of small streams, in the upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and likely other states. The canopy includes Acer rubrum, Quercus phellos, and possibly other wetland trees. Some examples may contain, or even be codominated by, Nyssa sylvatica or less likely Nyssa biflora. Some herbs found in this association include Saururus cernuus, Impatiens capensis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Boehmeria cylindrica, Rudbeckia laciniata, Ranunculus recurvatus, and Juncus spp. Some more western examples may contain Chelone glabra and Saxifraga micranthidifolia. Occurrences in South Carolina's Savannah River drainage are dominated by Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea, Carex debilis var. pubera, Carex debilis var. debilis, and Carex leptalea.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Vegetation which may fit this concept at Hanging Rock State Park (Stokes County, northwestern Piedmont of North Carolina) has a canopy dominated by Acer rubrum var. trilobum and Liriodendron tulipifera, and a subcanopy containing Ilex opaca var. opaca and Acer rubrum. Shrubs include Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Ilex montana, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia ), and Gaylussacia frondosa?. The herbaceous layer contains Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, Carex intumescens, Chasmanthium laxum, Calamagrostis coarctata, Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (= Aster umbellatus var. umbellatus), Viola x primulifolia, and Chelone cuthbertii (M. Pyne pers. comm. 1997). In Virginia and farther north, related vegetation is treated (depending on soil chemistry) as Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea Swamp Forest (CEGL006238) and Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Ilex verticillata - Vaccinium fuscatum / Osmunda cinnamomea Seep Forest (CEGL007853).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Interior-Appalachian Seepage Swamp
Alliance Appalachian-Piedmont Red Maple - Blackgum Seepage Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004551 Acer rubrum var. trilobum - Liriodendron tulipifera / Ilex opaca var. opaca / Osmunda cinnamomea Seep Forest
CEGL006238 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Viburnum nudum var. nudum / Osmunda cinnamomea Swamp Forest
CEGL007013 Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Platanus occidentalis - Celtis laevigata / Chasmanthium latifolium Piedmont Floodplain Forest
CEGL007031 Acer rubrum / Alnus serrulata - Lindera benzoin / Glyceria striata - Impatiens capensis Seep Forest
CEGL007041 Acer rubrum / Viburnum nudum - Photinia pyrifolia / Smilax laurifolia / Carex debilis var. pubera Seep Forest
CEGL007853 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Ilex verticillata - Vaccinium fuscatum / Osmunda cinnamomea Seep Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Low Elevation Seep (Typic Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Diabase Bog
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Hall. S., and M. Boyer. 1992. Inventory of the natural areas and wildlife habitats of Chatham County, North Carolina. Unpublished report.
Related Concept Name: Low Elevation Seep
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.298 Piedmont Seepage Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3? (31Jan2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This seepage forest community occurs in small areas over a fairly wide distribution. Few, if any, examples are unaltered, and nearly all examples have been altered by both timber harvest and siltation.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation is found in the upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, South Carolina, and likely other states. Examples are known from Orange, Stokes, and Yadkin counties in the Piedmont of North Carolina (Schafale and Weakley 1990), and Cherokee County, South Carolina (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data 2004).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy includes Acer rubrum, Quercus phellos, and possibly other wetland trees. Some examples may contain, or even be codominated by, Nyssa sylvatica or less likely Nyssa biflora. Some herbs found in this association include Saururus cernuus, Impatiens capensis, Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Boehmeria cylindrica, Chelone glabra, Rudbeckia laciniata, Ranunculus recurvatus, and Juncus spp. Some more montane-influenced examples (e.g., Stokes County, North Carolina) may contain Saxifraga micranthidifolia (Schafale and Weakley 1990). Occurrences in South Carolina's Savannah River drainage are dominated by Carex atlantica ssp. capillacea, Carex debilis var. pubera, Carex debilis var. debilis, and Carex leptalea (P. Hyatt pers. comm.).

An apparent example at Hanging Rock State Park (Stokes County, northwestern Piedmont of North Carolina) contains Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis, Woodwardia areolata, Carex intumescens, Chasmanthium laxum, Calamagrostis coarctata, Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata (= Aster umbellatus var. umbellatus), Viola x primulifolia, and Chelone cuthbertii.


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Chelone cuthbertii G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Chelone cuthbertii
  (Cuthbert's Turtlehead)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This saturated vegetation is found in seepage areas, often on edges of floodplains or in headwaters of small streams in the upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and likely other states.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This saturated vegetation is found in seepage areas, often on edges of floodplains or in headwaters of small streams.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M.P. Schafale, mod. M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jan2013
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Hall. S., and M. Boyer. 1992. Inventory of the natural areas and wildlife habitats of Chatham County, North Carolina. Unpublished report.

  • Hyatt, P. Personal communication. Forest Botanist, Ozark, St. Francis National Forests, Arkansas.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Pyne, Milo. Personal communication. Southeast Regional Ecologist. NatureServe, Southeast Regional Office, Durham, NC.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.


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