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Liriodendron tulipifera - Quercus spp. Ruderal Forest
Translated Name: Tuliptree - Oak species Ruderal Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Tuliptree Forest (Typic Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007221
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This broadly defined ruderal or successional community is one of several described upland associations dominated by Liriodendron tulipifera. It ranges from the southern Cumberland Plateau, Piedmont, and Interior Low Plateau of the southeastern U.S. north to the northern Piedmont of New Jersey. These successional forests often follow cropping, clearcut logging, or other severe disturbance, and are successional to mixed oak-hickory forests. Examples are common across large areas of the upland landscape which have previously been disturbed. Soils usually exhibit evidence of disturbance and may have little to no organic horizon development. They are typically acidic and well-drained, dry to moist sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, or silt loam. Environmental setting is variable, ranging from level to gently sloping uplands to well-drained floodplains and stream terraces. Species found in stands attributable to this type may include a fairly diverse and varied composition. Acer rubrum, Quercus spp., Betula lenta, Oxydendrum arboreum, Acer saccharum, and occasionally Liquidambar styraciflua, Ilex opaca, or Robinia pseudoacacia may be common in stands of this type. Where oaks are present, they are frequently multi-stemmed, resulting from coppicing. The conifer Tsuga canadensis is abundant in the understories of some stands. Shrub composition is variable but may include Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis, Rhododendron maximum, Hamamelis virginiana, and Vaccinium pallidum. Herbs are likewise variable; West Virginia samples feature Dioscorea quaternata, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Maianthemum racemosum, Solidago curtisii, Symphyotrichum prenanthoides, Polystichum acrostichoides, Dryopteris intermedia, Arisaema triphyllum ssp. triphyllum, Packera aurea, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Lycopodium digitatum, and Geranium maculatum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: It differs from other described types within its range based on the lack of a significant pine component [see Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus taeda Ruderal Forest (CEGL007521)] and the absence of species affiliated with circumneutral conditions [see Liriodendron tulipifera / (Cercis canadensis) / (Lindera benzoin) Ruderal Forest (CEGL007220)]; it is later successional and more diverse than Liriodendron tulipifera Ruderal Forest (CEGL007218) and tends to be found on more stable soil substrates and less steep slopes than Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer rubrum - Robinia pseudoacacia Ruderal Forest (CEGL007219).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Eastern North American Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Tuliptree - Black Walnut - Black Locust Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006599 Prunus serotina - Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer rubrum - Fraxinus americana - (Robinia pseudoacacia) Ruderal Forest
CEGL007184 Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer negundo Ruderal Forest
CEGL007218 Liriodendron tulipifera Ruderal Forest
CEGL007219 Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer rubrum - Robinia pseudoacacia Ruderal Forest
CEGL007220 Liriodendron tulipifera / (Cercis canadensis) / (Lindera benzoin) Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Successional forest of low-elevation plateaus
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tulip Poplar Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.
Related Concept Name: Yellow Poplar community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.898 Southern Interior Low Plateau Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (19Aug2002)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This forest represents early-successional vegetation and is thus not a priority for conservation. This is a successional vegetation type composed of native species. Its conservation value is limited, but mature examples could provide buffer for communities of greater conservation value. It may also support rare animal and plant species.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, DC, DEpotentially occurs, GA, KY, MD, NC, NJ, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is known from the southern Cumberland Plateau, Piedmont, and Interior Low Plateau of the southeastern U.S. and may also occur in the Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain. It ranges north to the northern Piedmont of New Jersey and adjacent Pennsylvania. It is also known from Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, and possibly Delaware.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 221H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 231D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of this ruderal upland association is dominated by Liriodendron tulipifera. Quercus species (Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Quercus falcata, Quercus nigra, Quercus velutina) are often present; additional associates may include Acer barbatum, Acer rubrum, Carya spp., Fagus grandifolia, Nyssa sylvatica, Cornus florida, and Robinia pseudoacacia. Betula lenta is a common associate at the northern range limit. Shrub layers may include saplings of the canopy species and Acer pensylvanicum, Amelanchier arborea, Hamamelis virginiana, Lindera benzoin (in small amounts), and Vaccinium pallidum. Herbs vary across the range but may include Actaea racemosa, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Dioscorea quaternata, Galium circaezans, Geranium maculatum, Goodyera pubescens, Medeola virginiana, Potentilla simplex, Scutellaria serrata, Thelypteris noveboracensis, and Uvularia perfoliata. Lycopodium digitatum may be abundant in some stands.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Carya glabra GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Fagus grandifolia GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus falcata GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus rubra GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus velutina GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Robinia pseudoacacia GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Tsuga canadensis GNA Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Acer pensylvanicum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Amelanchier arborea GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Hamamelis virginiana GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Cornus florida GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Actaea racemosa GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Galium circaezans GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Geranium maculatum GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Goodyera pubescens GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hexastylis naniflora GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Medeola virginiana GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Trillium rugelii GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium simile GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Uvularia perfoliata GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lycopodium digitatum GNA Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Thelypteris noveboracensis GNA Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum GNA Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Hexastylis naniflora
  (Dwarf-flower Heartleaf)
G3 LT: Listed threatened
Trillium rugelii
  (Southern Nodding Trillium)
G3  
Trillium simile
  (Jeweled Wakerobin)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: These ruderal upland deciduous forests are found primarily in areas which were once clearcuts, old fields, or were cleared by fire or other natural disturbances. These successional forests often follow cropping, clearcut logging, or other severe disturbance, and are successional to mixed oak-hickory forests. Examples are common across large areas of the upland landscape which have previously been disturbed. Soils usually exhibit evidence of disturbance and may have little to no organic horizon development. Environmental setting is variable, ranging from level to gently sloping uplands to well-drained floodplains and stream terraces.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is widespread in areas that had stand-initiating disturbance such as heavy logging or plowing in the recent past. In areas that have been protected for more than 80 years, this community is uncommon.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley and A. Andreu
Element Description Edition Date: 22Dec2011
Element Description Author(s): R.E. Evans, M. Pyne, L.A. Sneddon, R. White and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Feb2010
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Ehrenfeld, J. G. 1977. Vegetation of Morristown National Historical Park: Ecological analysis and management alternatives. Final Report. USDI National Park Service Contract No. 1600-7-0004. 166 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Gallyoun, M., G. Meyer, A. Andreu, and W. Slocumb. 1996. Mapping vegetation communities with The Nature Conservancy's vegetation classification system on five small national parks in the southeastern USA. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Conservation Science Department, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Keever, C. 1973. Distribution of major forest species in southeastern Pennsylvania. Ecological Monographs 43:303-327.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Overlease, W. R. 1987. 150 years of vegetation change in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Bartonia 53:1-12.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/125. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008b. Vegetation classification and mapping at Booker T. Washington National Monument, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/100. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 173 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008e. Vegetation classification and mapping at Petersburg National Battlefield, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/127. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 235 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008f. Vegetation classification and mapping at Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/128. National Park Service. Philadelphia, PA. 244 pp.

  • Podniesinski, G. S., L. A. Sneddon, J. Lundgren, H. Devine, B. Slocumb, and F. Koch. 2005b. Vegetation classification and mapping of Valley Forge National Historical Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2005/028. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 129 pp.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • Russell, E. W. B., and A. E. Schuyler. 1988. Vegetation and flora of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, eastern Pennsylvania. Bartonia 54:124-143.

  • Schmalzer, P. A., and H. R. DeSelm. 1982. Vegetation, endangered and threatened plants, critical plant habitats and vascular flora of the Obed Wild and Scenic River. Unpublished report. USDI National Park Service, Obed Wild and Scenic River. 2 volumes. 369 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Sneddon, L., R. E. Zaremba, E. Largay, G. Podniesinski, S. Perles, and J. Thompson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping of Morristown National Historical Park, New Jersey. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/116. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 162 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/morr/morrrpt.pdf]

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Taverna, K. and K. D. Patterson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2008/126. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 277 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., B. P. Streets, Z. Arcaro, and S. C. Gawler. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gauley River National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/148. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 160 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2004. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Cowpens National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 126 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D., and T. Govus. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Kings Mountain National Military Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 178 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr. 2006. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 246 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and M. Pyne. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Guilford Courthouse National Military Park. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Southeast Regional Office, Durham, NC. 124 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr., and T. Govus. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Ninety Six National Historic Site. Prepared for the National Park Service. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 146 pp.


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