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Pinus banksiana / Aronia melanocarpa / Xanthoparmelia spp. Woodland
Translated Name: Jack Pine / Black Chokeberry / Boulder Lichen species Woodland
Common Name: Jack Pine Pavement Barrens
Unique Identifier: CEGL005045
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is found in northern New York and adjacent Canada, where it occurs on very shallow soils over relatively flat sandstone or granite bedrock. The canopy is open, ranging from 10-60%. Pinus banksiana is the typical dominant, although Pinus resinosa, Pinus rigida, and Pinus strobus may be locally dominant. Other characteristic trees include Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, and Quercus rubra. The shrub layer is dominated by heath shrubs, including Aronia melanocarpa, Comptonia peregrina, Gaylussacia baccata, and Vaccinium angustifolium. The ground layer includes many lichens and mosses, which may form a continuous mat in some areas. Characteristic lichens include Cladonia spp., Stereocaulon sp., and Xanthoparmelia sp. Characteristic mosses include Polytrichum spp. and Pleurozium schreberi. Herbs are scattered throughout this mat, including Danthonia spicata, Deschampsia flexuosa, Gaultheria procumbens, and Pteridium aquilinum. This community has very few vascular species, and its distinctiveness may be partially a function of the lichen flora.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: This community is related to jack pine woodlands in Maine and New Hampshire and also to acidic rock outcrop communities throughout New England. Excepting the flatrock habitat, similar vegetation may be found in central Ontario. This community, however, is very species-depauperate, and its distinctiveness may be partially a function of the lichen flora. Comparable information is not yet available for many similar types.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian Pine - Hardwood Forest & Woodland
Group Laurentian-Acadian Pine - Oak Forest & Woodland
Alliance Jack Pine - Red Pine - Northern Pin Oak Forest & Woodland

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005101 (Pinus strobus, Quercus rubra) / Danthonia spicata Acidic Bedrock Scrub Grassland
CEGL006041 Pinus banksiana / Kalmia angustifolia - Vaccinium spp. Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Sandstone pavement barrens Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002



Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.019 Laurentian Acidic Rocky Outcrop


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (15Oct1998)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: 1998: The global rank of this association has changed to G4G5 based on evaluation of its occurrence in Canada, where it is ranked S5 by the Ontario CDC. 1994: There are probably fewer than 10 occurrences of this community, and only two are in good condition. Currently there are four occurrences documented in northern New York. Total acreage is probably less than 6000 acres. Currently about 5500 acres are documented in New York. This community has a very restricted distribution; it is only known from flat outcrops of Potsdam sandstone in northern New York.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NY
Canadian Province Distribution: ON, QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This community is common in Ontario, becoming more restricted to the east where it is reported from northern New York, on Potsdam sandstone near the border with Quebec. A similar type of vegetation occurs on the same bedrock across the border in Quebec, but jack pine is rare or absent, replaced by birch or other pines. A similar type of vegetation occurs on sandstone knobs in the St. Lawrence valley of northern New York and Ontario, but pitch pine is the dominant tree, and jack pine is absent.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: St. Lawrence and Champlain Valley Section
Section Code: 212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The dominant tree is generally Pinus banksiana, although Pinus strobus or Pinus resinosa may be locally dominant at some sites. Other characteristic trees include Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Quercus rubra, and Quercus coccinea. The shrub layer is dominated by heaths including Vaccinium angustifolium, Gaylussacia baccata, as well as Aronia melanocarpa and Comptonia peregrina. The ground cover includes several lichens and mosses which may form a continuous cover in some areas. Characteristic lichens include Cladonia spp. (= Cladina spp.), Stereocaulon spp., and Xanthoparmelia spp.; characteristic mosses include Polytrichum spp. and Pleurozium schreberi. Herbs including Pteridium aquilinum, Gaultheria procumbens, Danthonia spicata, and Deschampsia flexuosa are scattered throughout.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Pinus banksiana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Aronia melanocarpa G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)    
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vaccinium angustifolium G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Pteridium aquilinum G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This woodland occurs on very shallow soils over sandstone bedrock. It is best developed where the bedrock forms a nearly level pavement.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 18Mar1994
Element Description Author(s): M. Anderson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C. Reschke

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Coles, J. J. 1990. By fire and ice: The evolution of an unusual landscape. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Vermont, Burlington.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Franzi, D. A., and K. B. Adams. 1993. The Altona flat rock jack pine barrens: A legacy of fire and ice. Vermont Geology 7:43-61.

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Stergas, R. L., and K. B. Adams. 1989. Jack pine barrens in northeastern New York: Postfire macronutrient concentrations, heat content, and understory biomass. Canadian Journal Forest Research 19:904-910.


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