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Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii Forest
Translated Name: Sugar Maple - Chinquapin Oak Forest
Common Name: Sugar Maple - Chinquapin Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL005010
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This dry-mesic forest community is found in the northeastern seaboard to the central United States and Canada on calcareous substrates. Stands occur on upper slopes or summits of limestone or marble ridges with dry soils. Limestone outcrops or boulders are often present. The tree canopy is typically dominated by Quercus muehlenbergii, the diagnostic species, and Acer saccharum, although relative percents vary widely. Oaks in general comprise at least 50% of the stand and sugar maple at least 20%. Other oak associates include Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and, locally, Quercus shumardii. Other hardwoods include Carya ovata, Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus quadrangulata, and Tilia americana. Betula spp., Pinus strobus, and Prunus serotina are occasional. Shrub and small tree species include Amelanchier sanguinea, Carpinus caroliniana, Cercis canadensis, Cornus alternifolia, Cornus florida, Cornus racemosa, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrangea arborescens, Lindera benzoin, Ostrya virginiana, Ribes americanum, Staphylea trifolia, Viburnum prunifolium, and Zanthoxylum americanum. Sparse to well-developed herb layer includes Asclepias quadrifolia, Carex eburnea, Carex platyphylla, Clematis occidentalis, Packera obovata, Phryma leptostachya, Sanicula marilandica, Saxifraga virginiensis, Arabis laevigata, and Triosteum aurantiacum, among many others. This type is not well described across its range; often grades into woodland. Similar types include Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL006017) in unglaciated areas to the south.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low - Poorly Documented
Classification Comments: Anderson (1996) provides further references for Ohio. He notes that it occurs mainly in northern Ohio, where it is primarily a calcareous substrate type but can also represent a transition from oak stands around prairies to beech - maple forests. In Illinois, this type may have occurred as a mesic sand forest subtype, e.g., around Peoria, where both sugar maple and chinquapin oak are noted in the General Land Office (presettlement) Survey notes. Stands on thin soil over dolomite may overlap with limestone woodlands (e.g., in New York Quercus alba - Quercus macrocarpa / Andropogon gerardii Wooded Grassland (CEGL005121)). Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest (CEGL006017) is a related type found in unglaciated areas to the south of this type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Chinquapin Oak - Red-cedar Alkaline Forest & Woodland
Alliance Chinquapin Oak Calcareous Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL005121 Quercus alba - Quercus macrocarpa / Andropogon gerardii Wooded Grassland
CEGL006017 Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Cercis canadensis Forest
CEGL006162 Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii / Carex platyphylla Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Illinois Mesic upland forest Undetermined   White and Madany 1978
Michigan Dry-mesic Southern Forest Undetermined   Kost et al. 2007
New York Limestone woodland Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Ohio Oak-maple forest Broader   ONHD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharum - Quercus muehlenbergii Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).
Related Concept Name: Yellow oak-sugar maple calcareous forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.046 North-Central Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest and Woodland
CES202.603 North-Central Appalachian Circumneutral Cliff and Talus


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (03Oct1996)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ILpotentially occurs, MIpotentially occurs, NY, OH
Canadian Province Distribution: ON
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This dry-mesic forest community is found in the north-central United States and adjacent Canada on calcareous substrates.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Till Plains, Beech-Maple Section
Section Code: 222H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The tree canopy is typically dominated by Quercus muehlenbergii, the diagnostic species, and Acer saccharum, although relative percents vary widely. Oaks in general comprise at least 50% of the stand and sugar maple at least 20%. Other oak associates include Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, and, locally, Quercus shumardii. Other hardwoods include Carya ovata, Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus quadrangulata, and Tilia americana. Betula spp., Pinus strobus, and Prunus serotina are occasional. Shrub and small tree species include Amelanchier sanguinea, Carpinus caroliniana, Cercis canadensis, Cornus alternifolia, Cornus florida, Cornus racemosa, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis virginiana, Hydrangea arborescens, Lindera benzoin, Ostrya virginiana, Ribes americanum, Staphylea trifolia, Viburnum prunifolium, and Zanthoxylum americanum. Sparse to well-developed herb layer includes Asclepias quadrifolia, Carex eburnea, Carex platyphylla, Clematis occidentalis (= Clematis verticillaris), Packera obovata (= Senecio obovatus), Phryma leptostachya, Sanicula marilandica, Saxifraga virginiensis, Arabis laevigata, and Triosteum aurantiacum, among many others.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus muehlenbergii GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Stands occur on upper slopes or summits of limestone or marble ridges with thin, dry soils. Limestone outcrops, boulders, or talus are often present.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen
Element Description Edition Date: 18Jan2008
Element Description Author(s): D. Faber-Langendoen, L. Sneddon and S.L. Neid
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct1996

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Anderson, D. M. 1996. The vegetation of Ohio: Two centuries of change. Draft. Ohio Biological Survey.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Faber-Langendoen, D., editor. 2001. Plant communities of the Midwest: Classification in an ecological context. Association for Biodiversity Information, Arlington, VA. 61 pp. plus appendix (705 pp.).

  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.

  • Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. 2007. Natural communities of Michigan: Classification and description. Report No. 2007-21, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing. 314 pp. [http://web4.msue.msu.edu/mnfi/reports/2007-21_Natural_Communites_of_Michigan_Classification_and_Description.pdf]

  • Lee, H., W. Bakowsky, J. Riley, J. Bowles, M. Puddister, P. Uhlig, and S. McMurray. 1998. Ecological land classification for southern Ontario: First approximation and its application. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Southcentral Science Section, Science Development and Transfer Branch. SCSS Field Guide FG-02.

  • ONHD [Ohio Natural Heritage Database]. No date. Vegetation classification of Ohio and unpublished data. Ohio Natural Heritage Database, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Columbus.

  • ONHIC [Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data. Ontario Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.

  • White, J., and M. Madany. 1978. Classification of natural communities in Illinois. Pages 311-405 in: Natural Areas Inventory technical report: Volume I, survey methods and results. Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, Urbana, IL.


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