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Quercus palustris - Acer rubrum / Carex grayi - Geum canadense Wet Forest
Translated Name: Pin Oak - Red Maple / Gray's Sedge - White Avens Wet Forest
Common Name: Pin Oak Small River Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006185
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This freely drained floodplain forest occurs along smaller rivers in southern New England and the northern Piedmont. The setting can range from high terraces to any broad flat area with diffuse or braided drainage. The canopy is composed of Quercus palustris, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer rubrum, Ulmus americana, and occasionally Quercus bicolor, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus nigra, Carya cordiformis, Nyssa sylvatica, and/or Platanus occidentalis. More typically upland trees sometimes found on these terraces include Quercus alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Pinus strobus, and Acer saccharum. Carpinus caroliniana may be present as a small tree. The shrub layer includes Lindera benzoin, Viburnum recognitum, Cornus amomum, Cornus obliqua, or Sambucus canadensis. The herbaceous layer is variable in composition and usually dense. It can have abundant sedges, including Carex lurida, Carex crinita, Carex intumescens, Carex rosea, Carex prasina, Carex lupulina, or Carex grayi, with additional species such as Cinna arundinacea, Leersia virginica, Panax trifolius, Symplocarpus foetidus, Geum canadense, Polygonum virginianum, Impatiens spp., Onoclea sensibilis, Athyrium filix-femina, Arisaema triphyllum, Iris versicolor, Viola sororia, and Toxicodendron radicans. Berberis thunbergii and Microstegium vimineum are common invasive species in these forests.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Interior-Appalachian Flatwoods & Swamp Forest
Alliance Pin Oak - Swamp White Oak Flooded & Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006240 Quercus palustris - (Quercus bicolor) - Acer rubrum / Vaccinium corymbosum / Osmunda cinnamomea Wet Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Quercus palustris - Fraxinus pennsylvanica temporarily flooded forests Equivalent   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Massachusetts Small-river Floodplain Forest Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New York Floodplain forest Broader   Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Bottomland Oak - Hardwood Palustrine Forest Broader   Fike 1999
Rhode Island Red Maple - Pin Oak Floodplain Forest Undetermined   Enser 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Southern New England floodplain forest
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (20May2011)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Approximately 50 occurrences occupying 10,000 acres or less are estimated over a somewhat limited range from southern New England to central New Jersey. This vegetation has likely declined over the short term and long term due to a number of human activities. Since many occurrences are located not far from large urban centers, existing occurrences face continued threats of construction and agriculture and associated runoff, as well as from hydrological manipulations such as culverts.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, NJ, NY, PA, RI
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently known from southern New England to New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is composed of Quercus palustris, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Acer rubrum, Ulmus americana, and occasionally Quercus bicolor, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus nigra, Carya cordiformis, Nyssa sylvatica, and/or Platanus occidentalis. More typically upland trees sometimes found on these terraces include Quercus alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula alleghaniensis, Pinus strobus, and Acer saccharum. Carpinus caroliniana may be present as a small tree. The shrub layer includes Lindera benzoin, Viburnum recognitum, Cornus amomum, Cornus obliqua, or Sambucus canadensis. The herbaceous layer is variable in composition and usually dense. It can have abundant sedges, including Carex lurida, Carex crinita, Carex intumescens, Carex rosea, Carex prasina, Carex lupulina, or Carex grayi, with additional species such as Cinna arundinacea, Leersia virginica, Panax trifolius, Symplocarpus foetidus, Geum canadense, Polygonum virginianum (= Tovara virginiana), Impatiens spp., Onoclea sensibilis, Athyrium filix-femina, Arisaema triphyllum, Iris versicolor, Viola sororia, and Toxicodendron radicans. Berberis thunbergii and Microstegium vimineum are common invasive species in these forests.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Fraxinus pennsylvanica G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus bicolor G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Quercus palustris G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Ulmus americana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)    
 
 
Lindera benzoin G3 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Geum canadense G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Onoclea sensibilis G3 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex crinita G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex grayi G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex intumescens G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lurida G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Cinna arundinacea G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This forest occurs on alluvial deposits in the floodplain of small rivers. Flooding occurs during local events, especially during winter months. These areas can be seasonally, temporarily or intermittently flooded, often with networks of small drainages and pools throughout. Many of these areas were previously used as pasture.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and K. Metzler
Element Description Edition Date: 20Jun2006
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid, L.A. Sneddon and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Barrett, N., and R. Enser. 1997. Alluvial plant communities within the Wood-Pawcatuck Major Basin, Rhode Island, May 12, 1997. The Nature Conservancy, Connecticut Field Office, Middletown, CT, and The Rhode Island Natural Heritage Program, Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/058. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011f. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Oak - Mixed Hardwood Palustrine Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16019] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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