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Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum - Nyssa biflora / Carex joorii Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Sweetgum - Red Maple - Swamp Tupelo / Cypress Swamp Sedge Swamp Forest
Common Name: Central Coastal Plain Basin Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006223
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This seasonally flooded hardwood forest community occurs in groundwater basins on the Coastal Plain of Maryland and Virginia. The canopy is of variable closure and is dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum, and Nyssa biflora. Associated canopy species include Quercus lyrata, Quercus laurifolia and Diospyros virginiana. The shrub layer is composed of Leucothoe racemosa and scattered Cephalanthus occidentalis. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex joorii, Carex striata, Panicum verrucosum, Fimbristylis autumnalis, and others.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Southern Coastal Plain Basin Swamp & Flatwoods
Group Coastal Plain Hardwood Basin Swamp
Alliance Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain Sweetgum Depression Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004082 Acer rubrum - Nyssa biflora - (Liquidambar styraciflua, Fraxinus sp.) Maritime Swamp Forest
CEGL007434 Nyssa biflora / Itea virginica - Cephalanthus occidentalis Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Central Coastal Plain Basin Swamp Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Liquidambar styraciflua - Acer rubrum - Nyssa biflora / Carex joorii Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Liquidambar styraciflua - Nyssa biflora / Carex joorii Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Rawinski, T. J. 1997. Vegetation ecology of the Grafton Ponds, York County, Virginia, with notes on waterfowl use. Natural Heritage Technical Report 97-10. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 42 pp. plus appendix.
Related Concept Name: Nyssa biflora - Liquidambar styraciflua / Leucothoe racemosa / (Carex joorii) Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Nyssa biflora - Liquidambar styraciflua / Leucothoe racemosa / (Woodwardia virginica) Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Nyssa biflora / Carex joorii Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain Depression Wetland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Upland Depression Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.518 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Pond
CES203.520 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Basin Swamp and Wet Hardwood Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1G2 (20Nov1997)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This community is limited to small seasonally flooded depressions of the coastal plain of Maryland and Virginia. The community is naturally small in size, reaching no more than 25 acres and on average is less than this size. The greatest threat to this community is incompatible human use of surrounding lands, generally agriculture with insufficient buffers to protect from pesticide and fertilizer use. Since this community depends on intact hydrology, another major threat is altered hydrology from ditching or over-pumping of groundwater.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is limited to small seasonally flooded depressions of the Coastal Plain of Maryland and Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Possible


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy of stands of this type is of variable closure and is dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua, Acer rubrum, and Nyssa biflora. Associated canopy species include Quercus lyrata, Quercus laurifolia and Diospyros virginiana. The shrub layer is composed of Leucothoe racemosa and scattered Cephalanthus occidentalis. The herbaceous layer is characterized by Carex joorii, Carex striata, Panicum verrucosum, Fimbristylis autumnalis, and others.


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This seasonally flooded hardwood forest community occurs in seasonally flooded groundwater basins on the Coastal Plain of Maryland and Virginia.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Nov1997
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011b. Analysis of Coastal Plain / Outer Piedmont bottomlands and non-alluvial wetlands in Virginia, 400 plots. In-house analysis, January 2011. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harrison, Jason W. Personal communication. State Community Ecologist, Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Division, Department of Natural Resources, Tawes State Office Building, E-1, Annapolis, MD 21401.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/129. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 369 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J. 1997. Vegetation ecology of the Grafton Ponds, York County, Virginia, with notes on waterfowl use. Natural Heritage Technical Report 97-10. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 42 pp. plus appendix.


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