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Bacopa monnieri - Eleocharis albida Marsh
Translated Name: Herb-of-Grace - White Spikerush Marsh
Common Name: Herb-of-Grace - Spikerush Interdunal Swale
Unique Identifier: CEGL006350
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association comprises vegetation in broad, flat, seasonally flooded ponds within maritime dunes, and is known only from Virginia. It occurs in natural settings at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, but has also been observed at impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Vegetation is often dominated by floating aquatic species, especially Bacopa monnieri. Common associates include Eleocharis albida, Stuckenia pectinata (= Potamogeton pectinatus), Pluchea odorata, Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens), Hydrocotyle umbellata, Hydrocotyle verticillata, Phyla lanceolata, and Cyperus odoratus. Algae may occur in abundance. Species diversity is low. Standing water may be present during much of the year. Soils are generally a shallow organic layer over wet sand. These interdunal ponds generally occur only in large dune systems.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Clarification of interdunal pond vegetation classification will require further data collection and analysis.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Northern & Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetland
Alliance Common Threesquare Interdunal Swale

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Interdune Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.264 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dune and Swale


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1Q (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently described from Virginia but possibly occurs in North Carolina and southward.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Vegetation is often dominated by floating aquatic species, especially Bacopa monnieri. Common associates include Eleocharis albida, Stuckenia pectinata (= Potamogeton pectinatus), Pluchea odorata, Schoenoplectus pungens (= Scirpus pungens), Hydrocotyle umbellata, Hydrocotyle verticillata, Phyla lanceolata, and Cyperus odoratus. Algae may occur in abundance.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Bacopa monnieri G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Eleocharis albida G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occurs in seasonally flooded to semipermanently flooded oligohaline ponds within maritime dunes. Standing water may be present during much of the year. Soils are generally a shallow organic layer over wet sand. These interdunal ponds generally occur only in large dune systems, but are also known from artificial impoundments as well.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Species composition of interdunal ponds varies with geography, topographic position, salinity from overwash or salt spray, hydroperiod, and soil properties (Fleming 2001).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 06Sep2013
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2001a. Community types of Coastal Plain calcareous ravines in Virginia. Preliminary analysis and classification. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 4 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1997a. Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Report to the NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. The Nature Conservancy. Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.


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