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Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus strobus - (Tsuga canadensis) / Carpinus caroliniana / Amphicarpaea bracteata Forest
Translated Name: Tuliptree - Eastern White Pine - (Eastern Hemlock) / American Hornbeam / American Hog-peanut Forest
Common Name: Central Appalachian Montane Small-Stream Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL008405
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association comprises small-stream floodplain forests of the shale lowlands of Virginia's Ridge and Valley and parts of the Northern Blue Ridge. Sites encompass the bottoms and toeslope terraces of small, high-order, more-or-less high-gradient mountain streams at elevations less than 760 m (2500 feet). Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus strobus are the most constant and abundant canopy trees, but Tsuga canadensis, Quercus alba, and Betula lenta are locally codominant. Many additional species occur as minor canopy or understory trees. Carpinus caroliniana and Cornus florida are dominant in the shrub layer. It has an extremely diverse though not particularly dense herbaceous stratum, with a mixture of wetland and upland species.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: In three studies of national forest landscapes conducted by Virginia Division of Natural Heritage ecologists (Fleming and Moorhead 1996, Rawinski et al. 1996, Fleming and Moorhead 2000), vegetation of small-stream floodplains had the highest species richness of any classified community type, as well as the single plot with the highest richness recorded in the Virginia mountains (Plot PM28, Peters Mountain, Alleghany County, n=122). Twelve plots were classified as this association in the Appalachian Trail classification study (Fleming and Patterson 2009a).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Interior-Northeastern Mesic Forest
Group Appalachian-Central Interior Mesic Forest
Alliance Southern Hemlock - Tuliptree Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006255 Liriodendron tulipifera - Platanus occidentalis - Betula lenta / Lindera benzoin / Circaea lutetiana ssp. canadensis Floodplain Forest
CEGL006304 Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis - Quercus rubra / Polystichum acrostichoides Forest
CEGL006473 Acer saccharum - Liriodendron tulipifera / Galium concinnum - Carex laxiculmis Forest
CEGL007143 Tsuga canadensis - Liriodendron tulipifera - Platanus occidentalis / Rhododendron maximum - Xanthorhiza simplicissima Wet Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Liriodendron tulipifera - Pinus strobus - (Tsuga canadensis) / Carpinus caroliniana / Amphicarpaea bracteata Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Pinus strobus - Tsuga canadensis - Quercus alba / Carpinus caroliniana Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Pinus strobus / Carpinus caroliniana / Amphicarpaea bracteata Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Piedmont / Mountain Alluvial Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Yellow-Poplar - White Oak - Northern Red Oak: 59
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (01Oct2001)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Although patch sizes are small, there are likely to be several hundred occurrences of this community type in Virginia alone.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA, WVpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is widely but locally distributed in the Blue Ridge and Ridge and Valley regions of northwestern and west-central Virginia. Occurrences in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia are likely.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Microtopographic diversity supports a wide range of mesophytic and wetland species, and contributes to notably high species richness (range = 46 to 122 taxa per 400 m2; mean = 73) in plot-sampled stands. Liriodendron tulipifera and Pinus strobus are the most constant and abundant canopy trees, but Tsuga canadensis, Quercus alba, and Betula lenta are locally codominant. Many additional species occur as minor canopy or understory trees, including Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Carya ovata, Carya cordiformis, Fraxinus americana, Juglans nigra, Magnolia acuminata, Platanus occidentalis, Quercus rubra, and Ulmus americana. Carpinus caroliniana and Cornus florida are dominant in the shrub layer, frequently extending into the lowest (6-10 m tall) tree layer. Other characteristic shrubs are Lindera benzoin, Hamamelis virginiana, Ostrya virginiana, Viburnum prunifolium, Viburnum acerifolium, and Asimina triloba. Climbing lianas, including Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Smilax rotundifolia, and Vitis spp., are often common. The herb layer is usually very diverse although not particularly dense or lush. Some of the more constant species in plot-sampled stands include Amphicarpaea bracteata, Botrychium virginianum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Geranium maculatum, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Desmodium nudiflorum, Actaea racemosa (= Cimicifuga racemosa), Galium triflorum, Stellaria pubera, and Arisaema triphyllum. Herbs that are associated with more frequently flooded streambanks and other wet microhabitats include Carex torta, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Glyceria striata, Impatiens capensis, Leersia virginica, Lycopus virginicus, Ranunculus recurvatus, Thalictrum pubescens, Verbesina alternifolia, and Viola cucullata.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liriodendron tulipifera G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus strobus G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Carpinus caroliniana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Cornus florida G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Amphicarpaea bracteata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Anemone quinquefolia var. minima G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Clintonia umbellulata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Eurybia divaricata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Goodyera pubescens G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Viola hirsutula G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex torta G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Anemone quinquefolia var. minima
  (Dwarf Anemone)
G5T3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Sites encompass the bottoms and toeslope terraces of small, high-order, more-or-less high-gradient mountain streams at elevations less than 760 m (2500 feet). Hydrologic regime is probably similar to that reported for Passage and Mill creeks in the Massanutten Mountains, where annual water table fluctuations are dramatic and small-scale fluvial landforms greatly influence species distributions (Hupp 1982, 1986, Olson and Hupp 1986). The lowest terraces of these narrow bottoms are probably flooded briefly once a year, while higher terraces are inundated only during rare, catastrophic floods. Slope ranges from 0-10 and aspect is variable. Microtopography is complex and includes floodplains, terraces, fans at tributary hollow mouths, and various bank features. Coarse woody debris, boulders, and cobbles transported by flood events are usually prominent components of the surface substrate. Soils are highly variable and range from well-drained to poorly drained. Soils collected from plot-sampled stands were strongly acidic (mean pH = 5.2) with moderately low base status.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.D. Patterson and G.P. Fleming, mod. G. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 19Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Oct2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Hupp, C. R. 1982. Stream-grade variation and riparian forest ecology along Passage Creek, Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109:488-499.

  • Hupp, C. R. 1986. Upstream variation in bottomland vegetation patterns, northwestern Virginia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 4:421-430.

  • Olson, C. G., and C. R. Hupp. 1986. Coincidence and spatial variability of geology, soils, and vegetation, Mill Run watershed, Virginia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 11:619-29.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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