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Saccharum spp. - Panicum verrucosum - (Rhexia spp., Sabatia spp.) Marsh
Translated Name: Plumegrass species - Warty Panicgrass - (Meadowbeauty species, Rose-gentian species) Marsh
Common Name: Southeastern Coastal Plain Pond Marsh (Plumegrass Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004752
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This vegetation occupies isolated upland depressions in the Coastal Plain of south-central and southwestern Georgia (and possibly Alabama). Examples are not connected to surface flow, but are poorly drained. These habitats are classically found on Grady soils, and are called "Grady Ponds," a term whose exact application is uncertain. They appear to be floristically and geomorphologically distinct from both Carolina bays and Georgia limesink ponds. Examples contain Panicum verrucosum, Scirpus cyperinus, Rhexia mariana, Rhexia virginica, Rhynchospora spp., and Carex glaucescens. Additional taxa seen include Hypericum sp., Ludwigia sp., Mecardonia acuminata, Sabatia angularis, Lachnanthes caroliana, Hypericum denticulatum, Viola x primulifolia, Dichanthelium sp., Euthamia sp., Eupatorium capillifolium, Eupatorium compositifolium, Pluchea camphorata, Drosera intermedia, and Ludwigia linifolia?.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This association generally fits the many Saccharum- (particularly Saccharum baldwinii) dominated depressions in Francis Marion National Forest; the dominant Sabatia is Sabatia campanulata, not Sabatia angularis, however. Other characteristic forbs are Pluchea rosea, Pluchea odorata, and Xyris difformis var. floridana (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004). These ponds are floristically and geomorphologically distinct from both Carolina bays and Georgia limesink ponds. On Fort Benning, Georgia (L6 Pond), this or related vegetation grades into that of the Panicum hemitomon Pondshore Marsh Alliance (A1379), which appears to be in areas of generally longer hydroperiod. More information on this or related vegetation is available from researchers at Ichauway Plantation, Georgia [see also Lynch (1986)]. Additional data may result in the renaming of this association.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Pondshore & Wet Prairie
Alliance Southeastern Coastal Plain Pondshore Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Alabama Saccharum spp. - Panicum verrucosum - (Rhexia spp., Sabatia spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Schotz pers. comm.


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Saccharum spp. - Panicum verrucosum - (Rhexia spp., Sabatia spp.) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.
Related Concept Name: Limesink Depression Pond
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Lynch, J. M. 1986. Classification of the natural communities of Ichauway Plantation, Baker County, Georgia. Unpublished document. 41 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.262 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Depression Pond
CES203.558 East Gulf Coastal Plain Depression Pond


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (20Dec2000)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This seasonally flooded herbaceous association is found in the emergent zones of ponds in the southern Coastal Plain. The total number of occurrences is not known. Many examples have been altered or destroyed, for example converted to farm ponds or affected by erosion from adjoining agricultural lands. Only a few extensive, high-quality examples remain. Remaining unprotected examples are vulnerable to damage from off-road vehicles, local hydrologic changes (ditching and draining), and land-use change (including housing development). Some examples are in areas of extensive human population growth, and the best hope for conservation is on public lands (e.g., military bases).

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: ALpotentially occurs, GA, MSpotentially occurs, SCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation is associated with, but not restricted to, "Grady Ponds." These ponds are found in the Coastal Plain of south-central and southwestern Georgia (and possibly Alabama) and are floristically and geomorphologically distinct from both Carolina bays and Georgia limesink ponds.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Examples of this association contain Panicum verrucosum, Scirpus cyperinus, and Carex glaucescens. Additional taxa seen include Hypericum sp., Ludwigia sp., Mecardonia acuminata, Rhexia spp., and Sabatia angularis. Ponds on Fort Benning, Georgia, contain Rhexia mariana, Rhexia virginica, Rhynchospora spp., Lachnanthes caroliana, Hypericum denticulatum, Viola x primulifolia, Dichanthelium sp., Euthamia sp., Eupatorium capillifolium, Eupatorium compositifolium, Pluchea camphorata, Drosera intermedia, and Ludwigia linifolia?. On the Francis Marion National Forest (South Carolina), the dominant Sabatia is Sabatia campanulata, not Sabatia angularis, however. Other characteristic forbs are Pluchea rosea, Pluchea odorata, and Xyris difformis var. floridana (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004).


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This vegetation occupies isolated upland depressions in the Coastal Plain of south-central and southwestern Georgia (and possibly Alabama) primarily in the Dougherty Plains (Omernik 65g) (EPA 2004), which are not connected to surface flow. These habitats are classically found on the Grady soil series (Typic Paleaquults), and they may also occur on the Pelham soil series (Arenic Paleaquults) (Lynch 1986).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The vegetation varies according to hydroperiod which changes seasonally. Standing water is often present during the winter, while many ponds dry up completely during the summer (Lynch 1986); many examples have evidence of fire as well.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 15Apr2004
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Dec2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • EPA [Environmental Protection Agency]. 2004. Level III and IV Ecoregions of EPA Region 4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR. Scale 1:2,000,000.

  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • Lynch, J. M. 1986. Classification of the natural communities of Ichauway Plantation, Baker County, Georgia. Unpublished document. 41 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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