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Juncus (dichotomus, scirpoides) - Drosera intermedia Wet Meadow
Translated Name: (Forked Rush, Needle-pod Rush) - Spoonleaf Sundew Wet Meadow
Common Name: Forked Rush Dune Swale
Unique Identifier: CEGL004111
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This interdunal swale community of the Eastern Shore of Maryland and Virginia occurs in small, shallow, saturated depressions. Soils are characterized by a shallow organic layer overlying sands. Sedges and rushes are strongly dominant, including species such as Juncus dichotomus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus biflorus, Juncus scirpoides, Juncus acuminatus, Juncus megacephalus, Juncus canadensis, Cyperus odoratus, Scleria verticillata, Rhynchospora colorata, and Fimbristylis castanea. Common associates include several "bog-loving" species of acidic, saturated environments, including Drosera intermedia, Lycopodiella appressa, Utricularia subulata, Utricularia juncea, Fuirena pumila, Xyris jupicai, and Xyris caroliniana, as well as other herbaceous associates including Linum medium, Eupatorium hyssopifolium var. hyssopifolium, Euthamia caroliniana, Andropogon virginicus, Triadenum virginicum, and Solidago sempervirens. Examples of this association are variable in floristic composition, but can be differentiated from Schoenoplectus pungens - Fimbristylis (castanea, caroliniana) Marsh (CEGL004117) by the strong dominance by Juncus spp. and the presence of species typical in bog settings, including Drosera intermedia, Drosera rotundifolia, Lycopodiella appressa, and others.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community occurs in close association, and often as part of a finely textured mosaic, with Morella (cerifera, pensylvanica) - Vaccinium corymbosum Wet Shrubland (CEGL003906) and Morella cerifera / Hydrocotyle verticillata Wet Shrubland (CEGL003840). It is similar to Schoenoplectus pungens - Fimbristylis (castanea, caroliniana) Marsh (CEGL004117) and may represent a successional phase.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Ne - Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plain Wet Prairie & Marsh
Group Northern & Mid-Atlantic Coastal Wetland
Alliance Forked Rush Interdunal Swale

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003906 Morella (cerifera, pensylvanica) - Vaccinium corymbosum Wet Shrubland
CEGL004117 Schoenoplectus pungens - Fimbristylis (castanea, caroliniana) Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Forked Rush Dune Swale Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maryland Juncus (dichotomus, scirpoides) - Drosera intermedia Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
New Jersey Juncus dichotomus - Drosera intermedia Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Andropogon community
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Tyndall, R. W., and G. F. Levy. 1978. Plant distribution and succession within interdunal depressions on a Virginia barrier dune system. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 94:1-15.
Related Concept Name: Juncus (dichotomus, scirpoides) - Drosera intermedia Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Juncus scirpoides - Schoenoplectus pungens Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.
Related Concept Name: Bog community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.
Related Concept Name: Interdunal Swale
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Interdunal wetlands
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Jones, H. A. 1992a. A vegetational analysis of interdunal swale communities of False Cape State Park, Currituck Spit, Virginia. M.S. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.
Related Concept Name: Maritime Wet Grassland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.264 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Dune and Swale


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (19Jan2006)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This small-patch wetland community is limited to coastal sand dunes of four states. There may be more than 100 occurrences, but they are small patch and total well less than 1000 acres.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MD, NJpotentially occurs, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs from New Jersey south to Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Sedges and rushes are strongly dominant, including species such as Juncus dichotomus, Juncus canadensis, Juncus biflorus, Juncus scirpoides, Juncus acuminatus, Juncus megacephalus, Juncus canadensis, Cyperus odoratus, Scleria verticillata, Rhynchospora colorata, and Fimbristylis castanea. Common associates include several "bog-loving" species of acidic, saturated environments, including Drosera intermedia, Lycopodiella appressa, Utricularia subulata, Utricularia juncea, Triadenum virginicum, Fuirena pumila, Xyris jupicai, and Xyris caroliniana, as well as other herbaceous associates including Linum medium, Eupatorium hyssopifolium var. hyssopifolium, Euthamia caroliniana, Andropogon virginicus, Triadenum virginicum, and Solidago sempervirens.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Xyris torta G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lycopodiella appressa G2 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Drosera intermedia G2 Succulent forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Andropogon virginicus G2 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Juncus dichotomus G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occupies freshwater interdunal swales with a shallow organic layer overlying sand. Groundwater is close to the surface, causing saturated hydrology, but standing water is generally present only after rain.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): L.A. Sneddon and A. Berdine, mod. S.L. Neid
Element Description Edition Date: 06Sep2013
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon, A. Berdine, S.L. Neid
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 19Jan2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Berdine, M. A. 1998. Maryland vegetation classification. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

  • Bowman, P. 2000. Draft classification for Delaware. Unpublished draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Brock, J. C., C. W. Wright, M. Patterson, A. Naeghandi, and L. J. Travers. 2007. EAARL bare earth topography - Assateague Island National Seashore. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2007-1176. [http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1176/start.html]

  • Clancy, K. 1996. Natural communities of Delaware. Unpublished review draft. Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Division of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Smyrna, DE. 52 pp.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2001a. Community types of Coastal Plain calcareous ravines in Virginia. Preliminary analysis and classification. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 4 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Higgins, E. A. T., R. D. Rappleye, and R. G. Brown. 1971. The flora and ecology of Assateague Island. University of Maryland Experiment Station Bulletin A-172. 70 pp.

  • Hill, S. R. 1986. An annotated checklist of the vascular flora of Assateague Island (Maryland and Virginia). Castanea 5:265-305.

  • Jones, H. A. 1992a. A vegetational analysis of interdunal swale communities of False Cape State Park, Currituck Spit, Virginia. M.S. thesis. College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA.

  • Sneddon, L., M. Anderson, and K. Metzler. 1994. A classification and description of terrestrial community alliances in The Nature Conservancy's Eastern Region: First approximation. Unpublished report to USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Gap Analysis Program. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Heritage Task Force, Boston, MA. 116 pp.

  • Sneddon, L., M. Anderson, and K. Metzler. 1996. Community alliances and elements of the Eastern Region. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Heritage Task Force, Boston, MA. 235 pp.

  • TNC [The Nature Conservancy]. 1995c. NBS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Vegetation classification of Assateague Island National Seashore. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Regional Office, Boston, MA.

  • Tyndall, R. W., and G. F. Levy. 1978. Plant distribution and succession within interdunal depressions on a Virginia barrier dune system. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 94:1-15.


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