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Taxodium ascendens / Panicum hemitomon - Polygala cymosa Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pond-cypress / Maidencane - Tall Pinebarren Milkwort Swamp Woodland
Common Name: Atlantic Coastal Plain Pond-cypress Swamp Woodland
Unique Identifier: CEGL003733
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community type occurs in seasonally flooded depressional wetlands, especially in clay-based Carolina bays. The canopy is open (to closed, or scattered) and dominated by Taxodium ascendens. The herbaceous stratum is normally dense, and extremely variable in dominance from site to site, spatially within each site, and from year to year (depending on hydrologic conditions). Typical dominants include Panicum hemitomon, Panicum verrucosum, Panicum rigidulum var. combsii, Leersia hexandra, Rhynchospora filifolia, Rhynchospora perplexa, Rhynchospora careyana, Dichanthelium erectifolium, Dichanthelium wrightianum, Scleria georgiana, Scleria reticularis, Polygala cymosa, Boltonia asteroides, Eriocaulon compressum, Lachnanthes caroliana, Eupatorium leucolepis, Pluchea rosea, Euthamia caroliniana, Rhexia aristosa, and Coelorachis rugosa.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Well-documented occurrences are known from Antioch Church Bay (Hoke County, North Carolina), Pretty Pond (Robeson County, North Carolina), and Goose Pond (Robeson County, North Carolina).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Group Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Alliance Pond-cypress Depression Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004087 Taxodium ascendens / Carex striata - Iris tridentata - (Woodwardia virginica) Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Cypress Savanna (Typic Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Cypress Savanna
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Small Depression Drawdown Meadow/Savanna (Typic Cypress Savanna Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.245 Atlantic Coastal Plain Clay-Based Carolina Bay Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G2G3 (23Jan2000)
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: This community occurs in seasonally flooded Carolina bays and other isolated depressions (surrounded by uplands). Historically, occurrences of this community probably numbered in the thousands, with areas of individual occurrences ranging from 10-1000 hectares (24-2400 acres). Most historic occurrences have been converted to agriculture or intensive silviculture. The few examples that remain have mostly been degraded in various ways. Historically, the matrix in which these communities occurred was primarily upland longleaf pine communities, and periodic fires burned into these communities during dry periods. Now, nearly all examples are isolated from natural matrix and periodic fire, altering there hydrologic function, vegetation structure, and capability to serve as habitat for animal species which use them and surrounding habitats. For bays surrounded by agriculture, runoff of animal waste and crop fertilizers degrades their condition.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, NC, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from the inner and outer Coastal Plain of southern North Carolina, South Carolina, and (probably) Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy stratum ranges from scattered to closed, but is generally open (and even when closed, Taxodium ascendens canopy casts only moderate shade). Taxodium ascendens is the dominant, usually strongly so, but Nyssa biflora and Liquidambar styraciflua may also be present in the canopy or subcanopy. Pinus taeda has sometimes invaded, because of adjacent seed source and fire suppression, but was probably not a typical component of the community under pre-settlement conditions. The shrub layer is usually sparse, though occasionally Ilex amelanchier can be common. Most shrubs are restricted to rooting in cypress knotholes, stumps, and knees, and can include Vaccinium formosum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Ilex glabra, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, Diospyros virginiana, Liquidambar styraciflua, Smilax rotundifolia, Toxicodendron radicans ssp. radicans, Cyrilla racemiflora, Gaylussacia frondosa, Ilex opaca var. opaca, Morella cerifera, Rubus argutus, and Vitis rotundifolia var. rotundifolia. The herbaceous stratum is normally dense, and extremely variable in dominance from site to site, spatially within each site, and from year to year (depending on hydrologic conditions). Typical dominants include Panicum hemitomon, Panicum verrucosum, Panicum rigidulum var. combsii, Leersia hexandra, Rhynchospora filifolia, Rhynchospora perplexa, Rhynchospora careyana, Dichanthelium erectifolium, Dichanthelium wrightianum, Scleria georgiana, Scleria reticularis, Polygala cymosa, Boltonia asteroides, Eriocaulon compressum, Lachnanthes caroliana, Eupatorium leucolepis, Pluchea rosea, Euthamia caroliniana, Rhexia aristosa, and Coelorachis rugosa. Other species include Agalinis linifolia, Bartonia paniculata, Centella erecta, Echinodorus tenellus, Eleocharis melanocarpa, Eleocharis tricostata, Gratiola ramosa, Hypericum denticulatum (= var. denticulatum), Hypericum gymnanthum, Lobelia boykinii, Lobelia nuttallii, Lycopus amplectens, Oxypolis canbyi, Pluchea camphorata, Proserpinaca pectinata, Saccharum giganteum, Saccharum spp., Sabatia difformis, Sagittaria isoetiformis, Sclerolepis uniflora, Symphyotrichum dumosum, Viola lanceolata ssp. vittata, and Xyris spp.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Taxodium ascendens G2 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Lobelia boykinii G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Oxypolis canbyi G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Polygala cymosa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Rhexia aristosa G2 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dichanthelium hirstii G2 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Panicum hemitomon G2 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Dichanthelium hirstii
  (Hirsts' Panicgrass)
G1  
Lobelia boykinii
  (Boykin's Lobelia)
G2G3  
Oxypolis canbyi
  (Canby's Dropwort)
G2 LE: Listed endangered
Rhexia aristosa
  (Awned Meadowbeauty)
G3G4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community type occurs in seasonally flooded depressional wetlands, especially in clay-based Carolina bays.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: These communities were historically burned on an occasional basis, by fires which traveled through the matrix longleaf pine uplands and burned into and across the Carolina bays when conditions permitted (dry seasons).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 12Jul2001
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Schafale, M. 2000. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain. January 2000 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2003b. Fourth approximation guide. Coastal Plain communities. March 2003 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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